At A Glance: This Prescriber in 2011
Self-Reported Primary Specialty
Rank: 522 out of 2310
Rank: 888 out of 2310
How Does This Prescriber Compare to Peers?
33% of this provider’s 315 patients filled at least one prescription for a narcotic painkiller, compared to an average of 17%.
Antipsychotics to Seniors
Risky Drugs to Seniors
4% of this provider’s 6,262 prescriptions for patients 65 and older were for "potentially dangerous" drugs, compared to an average of 1%.
Brand Name Drugs
18% of this provider’s prescriptions were for brand-name drugs, compared to an average of 22%.
$43 was the average price of a prescription from this provider, compared to $60 among peers.
Prescriptions per Patient
30 is the average number of prescriptions (including refills) per patient, compared to an average of 21.
This chart shows a different comparison of all providers in this specialty based on their mix of drugs and volume. Providers are grouped by similarity; those least like their peers are farthest to the right. Hover over the bars to see names of other prescribers.
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This Prescriber's Drugs
The table below list this provider’s drugs, the number of prescriptions and how many went to seniors. Drugs are ranked by volume and compared with the rank for all providers in the same specialty and state.
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An antipsychotic drug. More » Antipsychotics are frequently given to dementia patients, though it increases their risk of death.
A risky drug for seniors. More » The American Geriatrics Society has said this drug is "potentially dangerous" for seniors and might be inappropriate.
A narcotic drug. More » Misuse and abuse of narcotics led to some 16,000 overdose deaths in 2010.
This provider is among the top 10 prescribers of
this drug in the country.
This provider’s prescriptions for this drug were for more days than those of peers. More » Because of this, his or her prescription count may be lower.
This provider’s prescriptions for this drug were for fewer days than those of peers. More » Because of this, his or her prescription count may be higher.
This Drug's Rank
Total Prescriptions Filled
|Category||For this Prescriber||
For All Prescribers in
This Specialty in Pennsylvania
Treats heartburn, stomach u... +
Treats heartburn, stomach ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and conditions that cause your stomach to make too much acid, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, endocrine tumors, and systemic mastocytosis. Also helps heal a damaged esophagus, and helps prevent stomach bleeding in patients who have a serious illness. This medicine may be used in combination with antibiotics to treat ulcers. This medicine is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). More info »
Treats high cholesterol and... +
Treats high cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood. Lowers risk of heart attack, stroke, and certain blood vessel problems in people with certain risk factors. This medicine is an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, also called a statin. More info »
Amlodipine is used alone or... +
Amlodipine is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure and chest pain (angina). Amlodipine is in a class of medications called calcium channel blockers. It lowers blood pressure by relaxing the blood vessels so the heart does not have to pump as hard. It controls chest pain by increasing the supply of blood to the heart. If taken regularly, amlodipine controls chest pain, but it does not stop chest pain once it starts. Your doctor may prescribe a different medication to take when you have chest pain. More info »
The combination of enalapri... +
The combination of enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide is used to treat high blood pressure. Enalapril is in a class of medications called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. It works by decreasing certain chemicals that tighten the blood vessels, so blood flows more smoothly. Hydrochlorothiazide is in a class of medications called diuretics ('water pills'). It works by causing the kidneys to get rid of unneeded water and salt from the body into the urine. More info »
Tramadol is used to relieve... +
Tramadol is used to relieve moderate to moderately severe pain. Tramadol extended-release tablets are only used by people who are expected to need medication to relieve pain around-the-clock for a long time. Tramadol is in a class of medications called opiate agonists. It works by changing the way the body senses pain. More info »
Levothyroxine, a thyroid ho... +
Levothyroxine, a thyroid hormone, is used to treat hypothyroidism, a condition where the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. Without this hormone, the body cannot function properly, resulting in: poor growth; slow speech; lack of energy; weight gain; hair loss; dry, thick skin; and increased sensitivity to cold. When taken correctly, levothyroxine reverses these symptoms. Levothyroxine is also used to treat congenital hypothyroidism (cretinism) and goiter (enlarged thyroid gland). More info »
Treats infections caused by... +
Treats infections caused by certain bacteria. This medicine is a macrolide antibiotic. More info »
Metoprolol is used alone or... +
Metoprolol is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure. It also is used to prevent angina (chest pain) and to improve survival after a heart attack. Extended-release (long-acting) metoprolol also is used in combination with other medications to treat heart failure. Metoprolol is in a class of medications called beta blockers. It works by relaxing blood vessels and slowing heart rate to improve blood flow and decrease blood pressure More info »
Treats or prevents bronchos... +
Treats or prevents bronchospasm in patients with asthma, emphysema, bronchitis, and other lung diseases. Also prevents wheezing caused by exercise (exercise-induced bronchospasm). This medicine is a bronchodilator. More info »
Metformin is used alone or ... +
Metformin is used alone or with other medications, including insulin, to treat type 2 diabetes (condition in which the body does not use insulin normally and, therefore, cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood). Metformin is in a class of drugs called biguanides. Metformin helps to control the amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood. It decreases the amount of glucose you absorb from your food and the amount of glucose made by your liver. Metformin also increases your body's response to insulin, a natural substance that controls the amount of glucose in the blood. Metformin is not used to treat type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not produce insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood). More info »
The combination of glyburid... +
The combination of glyburide and metformin is used to treat type 2 diabetes (condition in which the body does not use insulin normally and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood) in people whose diabetes cannot be controlled by diet and exercise alone. Glyburide belongs to a class of drugs called sulfonylureas, and metformin is in a class of drugs called biguanides. Glyburide lowers blood sugar by causing the pancreas to produce insulin (a natural substance that is needed to break down sugar in the body) and helping the body use insulin efficiently. This medication will only help lower blood sugar in people whose bodies produce insulin naturally. Metformin helps your body control the amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood. It decreases the amount of glucose you absorb from your food and the amount of glucose made by your liver. It also helps your body use its own insulin more effectively. Glyburide and metformin are not used to treat type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not produce insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood) or diabetic ketoacidosis (a serious condition that may occur if high blood sugar is not treated). More info »
Pravastatin is used with di... +
Pravastatin is used with diet, weight-loss, and exercise to reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke and to decrease the chance that heart surgery will be needed in people who have heart disease or who are at risk of developing heart disease. Pravastatin is also used to reduce the amount of cholesterol (a fat-like substance) and other fatty substances in the blood. Pravastatin is in a class of medications called HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins). It works by slowing the production of cholesterol in the body to decrease the amount of cholesterol that may build up on the walls of the arteries and block blood flow to the heart, brain, and other parts of the body. More info »
Cyclobenzaprine, a muscle r... +
Cyclobenzaprine, a muscle relaxant, is used with rest, physical therapy, and other measures to relax muscles and relieve pain and discomfort caused by strains, sprains, and other muscle injuries. More info »
Treats certain types of sei... +
Treats certain types of seizures. Also treats Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) and pain caused by shingles (postherpetic neuralgia). More info »
Treats skin irritation, all... +
Treats skin irritation, allergic reactions, and other types of skin problems. This medicine is a corticosteroid. More info »
Treats high blood pressure ... +
Treats high blood pressure and heart failure. A lower blood pressure will reduce the risk of stroke and heart attack. Also used in the first few days after a heart attack to help reduce the risk of death. This medicine is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. More info »
This drug is used to treat ... +
This drug is used to treat high blood pressure. It is also used to lower the risk of strokes in patients with high blood pressure and an enlarged heart. More info »
Used together with proper d... +
Used together with proper diet and exercise to help control blood sugar in adults with type 2 diabetes. More info »
Used alone or together with... +
Used alone or together with aspirin to help prevent stroke, heart attack, and other heart problems. This medicine is a blood thinner. More info »
Treats ulcers, gastroesopha... +
Treats ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and conditions that cause the stomach to produce too much stomach acid. Also treats heartburn caused by acid indigestion. More info »
Prescription naproxen is us... +
Prescription naproxen is used to relieve pain, tenderness, swelling, and stiffness caused by osteoarthritis (arthritis caused by a breakdown of the lining of the joints), rheumatoid arthritis (arthritis caused by swelling of the lining of the joints), juvenile arthritis (a form of joint disease in children), and ankylosing spondylitis (arthritis that mainly affects the spine). Prescription naproxen tablets, extended-release tablets, and suspension are also used to relieve shoulder pain caused by bursitis (inflammation of a fluid-filled sac in the shoulder joint), tendinitis (inflammation of the tissue that connects muscle to bone), gouty arthritis (attacks of joint pain caused by a build-up of certain substances in the joints), and pain from other causes, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Nonprescription naproxen is used to reduce fever and to relieve mild pain from headaches, muscle aches, arthritis, menstrual periods, the common cold, toothaches, and backaches. Naproxen is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. It works by stopping the body's production of a substance that causes pain, fever, and inflammation. More info »
Treats diabetes mellitus. I... +
Treats diabetes mellitus. Insulin is a hormone that helps get sugar from the blood to the muscles, where it is used for energy. This type of insulin usually works longer than regular insulin. More info »
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Treats high blood pressure.... +
Treats high blood pressure. A lower blood pressure can reduce the risk of stroke and heart attack. This medicine is a combination of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and a thiazide diuretic (water pill). More info »
This combination medication... +
This combination medication is used to treat a variety of inflamed fungal skin infections such as ringworm, athlete's foot, and jock itch. More info »
Losartan is used alone or i... +
Losartan is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure. Losartan is also used to decrease the risk of stroke in people who have high blood pressure and a heart condition called left ventricular hypertrophy (enlargement of the walls of the left side of the heart). Losartan may not decrease the risk of stroke in African Americans who have these conditions. This medication is also used to treat kidney disease in people who have type 2 diabetes (condition in which the body does not use insulin normally and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood) and high blood pressure. Losartan is in a class of medications called angiotensin II receptor antagonists. It works by blocking the action of certain natural substances that tighten the blood vessels, allowing the blood to flow more smoothly and the heart to pump more efficiently. More info »
Ciprofloxacin is used to tr... +
Ciprofloxacin is used to treat or prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Ciprofloxacin is also used to treat or prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on purpose as part of a bioterror attack) in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. Ciprofloxacin extended-release (long-acting) tablets are used only to treat certain types of urinary tract infections. Ciprofloxacin is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. More info »
Prevents symptoms of asthma... +
Prevents symptoms of asthma or COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. This medicine is a combination of a steroid and a bronchodilator. More info »
Treats skin infections and... +
Treats skin infections and bacterial infections in your nose. More info »
Treats fever and pain, incl... +
Treats fever and pain, including pain caused by headache, toothache, arthritis, cold or flu, migraine, or menstrual cramps. This is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). More info »
Helps prevent and control a... +
Helps prevent and control asthma attacks, including attacks caused by exercise. Also treats seasonal (short-term) and perennial (long-term) allergies. More info »
Treats stuffy nose caused b... +
Treats stuffy nose caused by hay fever and other allergies. This medicine is a corticosteroid. More info »
Lowers high cholesterol and... +
Lowers high cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood. Lowers the risk of chest pain, stroke, heart attack, or certain heart and blood vessel problems in people who have certain risk factors. This medicine is an HMG-CoA inhibitor, also called a statin. More info »
Insulin injection is used t... +
Insulin injection is used to control blood sugar in people who have type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not make insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood) or in people who have type 2 diabetes (condition in which the blood sugar is too high because the body does not produce or use insulin normally) that cannot be controlled with oral medications alone. Insulin injection is in a class of medications called hormones. Insulin injection is used to take the place of insulin that is normally produced by the body. It works by helping move sugar from the blood into other body tissues where it is used for energy. It also stops the liver from producing more sugar. All of the types of insulin that are available work in this way. The types of insulin differ only in how quickly they begin to work and how long they continue to control blood sugar. More info »
Treats fluid retention (ede... +
Treats fluid retention (edema) and high blood pressure (hypertension). More info »
Used with diet and exercise... +
Used with diet and exercise to help control blood sugar in patients with type 2 diabetes. More info »
Donepezil is used to treat ... +
Donepezil is used to treat dementia (a brain disorder that affects the ability to remember, think clearly, communicate, and perform daily activities and may cause changes in mood and personality) associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD; a brain disease that slowly destroys the memory and the ability to think, learn, communicate and handle daily activities). Donepezil is in a class of medications called cholinesterase inhibitors. It improves mental function (such as memory, attention, social interaction, reasoning and language abilities, and ability to perform activities of daily living) by increasing the amount of a certain naturally occurring substance in the brain. Donepezil may improve the ability to think and remember or slow the loss of these abilities in people who have AD. However, donepezil will not cure AD or prevent the loss of mental abilities at some time in the future. More info »
Meclizine is used to preven... +
Meclizine is used to prevent and treat nausea, vomiting, and dizziness caused by motion sickness. It is most effective if taken before symptoms appear. More info »
Clonidine is used alone or ... +
Clonidine is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure. Clonidine is in a class of medications called centrally acting alpha-agonist hypotensive agents. It works by decreasing your heart rate and relaxing the blood vessels so that blood can flow more easily through the body. More info »
Warfarin is used to prevent... +
Warfarin is used to prevent blood clots from forming or growing larger in your blood and blood vessels. It is prescribed for people with certain types of irregular heartbeat, people with prosthetic (replacement or mechanical) heart valves, and people who have suffered a heart attack. Warfarin is also used to treat or prevent venous thrombosis (swelling and blood clot in a vein) and pulmonary embolism (a blood clot in the lung). Warfarin is in a class of medications called anticoagulants ('blood thinners'). It works by decreasing the clotting ability of the blood. More info »
Treats infections. Also use... +
Treats infections. Also used with other medicines to treat stomach ulcer. This medicine is a penicillin antibiotic. More info »
Treats moderate to moderate... +
Treats moderate to moderately severe pain. This medicine contains a narcotic pain reliever. More info »
Treats high blood pressure ... +
Treats high blood pressure and congestive heart failure (CHF). Also reduces the risk of death from a heart attack. This medicine is a beta-blocker. More info »
Paroxetine tablets, suspens... +
Paroxetine tablets, suspension (liquid), and extended-release (long-acting) tablets are used to treat depression, panic disorder (sudden, unexpected attacks of extreme fear and worry about these attacks), and social anxiety disorder (extreme fear of interacting with others or performing in front of others that interferes with normal life). Paroxetine tablets and suspension are also used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (bothersome thoughts that won't go away and the need to perform certain actions over and over), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; excessive worrying that is difficult to control), and posttraumatic stress disorder (disturbing psychological symptoms that develop after a frightening experience). Paroxetine extended-release tablets are also used to treat premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD, physical and psychological symptoms that occur before the onset of the menstrual period each month). Paroxetine is in a class of medications called selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It works by increasing the amount of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. More info »
Treats high blood pressure.... +
Treats high blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of strokes and heart attacks. This medicine is a combination of a beta blocker and a diuretic (water pill). More info »
This combination of drugs i... +
This combination of drugs is used to relieve mild to moderate pain. More info »
Enalapril is used alone or ... +
Enalapril is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure. It is also used in combination with other medications to treat heart failure. Enalapril is in a class of medications called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. It works by decreasing certain chemicals that tighten the blood vessels, so blood flows more smoothly and the heart can pump blood more efficiently. More info »
Treats high blood pressure ... +
Treats high blood pressure and angina (chest pain). May also lower the risk of repeated heart attacks. More info »
Hydroxyzine is used to reli... +
Hydroxyzine is used to relieve the itching caused by allergies and to control the nausea and vomiting caused by various conditions, including motion sickness. It is also used for anxiety and to treat the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. More info »
About This Data
ProPublica obtained prescribing data from Medicare’s prescription drug benefit, known as Part D, under the Freedom of Information Act. The data for 2011 includes nearly 1.2 billion prescriptions written by 1.6 million doctors, nurses and other providers. This database lists about 364,000 of those providers who wrote 50 or more prescriptions for at least one drug that year. About three-fourths went to patients 65 and older; the rest were for disabled patients. Methodology »
- No comparisons are shown if 10 or fewer prescribers in the state share this specialty.
- The list of top drugs includes only those for which this provider wrote 50 or more prescriptions, but all prescriptions are counted in the summary totals at the top.
- The calculation of “Risky Drugs to Seniors” does not include drugs for which a provider wrote 11 or fewer prescriptions because Medicare redacted the information to protect patient privacy.
- Comparisons do not take into account the medical conditions of patients. Medications for certain conditions do not have generic alternatives, so patients would receive more expensive brand name drugs.
- This provider's address and specialty information was last updated on May 13, 2008.
- Comparisons are based on each provider’s current address, not necessarily where he or she worked during the time period covered in this database.
If you are a provider and you believe your address is incorrect, check the listing you created on the National Provider Identifier registry. If you change your listing, send a note to email@example.com and we will update your information. If you have other questions about this data, send a note to firstname.lastname@example.org.