42 USC 3610(d): Information Related to conciliation under the Fair Housing Act
About This Project
This project uses data compiled by the Sunshine in Government initiative, a coalition of journalism and transparency groups. SGI compiled data from federal agency annual FOIA reports to track how often b(3) exemptions were used. SGI also standardized the exemptions since some agencies used slightly different citations of the same laws. In some cases, agencies listed general laws without specifying a section under which information was withheld. This project does not include information from agencies that use no b(3) exemptions in 2008 or 2009. ProPublica compiled information about FOIA denials.
CHAPTER 45--FAIR HOUSING SUBCHAPTER I--GENERALLY
Sec. 3610. Administrative enforcement; preliminary matters (a) Complaints and answers (1)(A)(i) An aggrieved person may, not later than one year after an alleged discriminatory housing practice has occurred or terminated, file a complaint with the Secretary alleging such discriminatory housing practice. The Secretary, on the Secretary's own initiative, may also file such a complaint. (ii) Such complaints shall be in writing and shall contain such information and be in such form as the Secretary requires. (iii) The Secretary may also investigate housing practices to determine whether a complaint should be brought under this section. (B) Upon the filing of such a complaint-- (i) the Secretary shall serve notice upon the aggrieved person acknowledging such filing and advising the aggrieved person of the time limits and choice of forums provided under this subchapter; (ii) the Secretary shall, not later than 10 days after such filing or the identification of an additional respondent under paragraph (2), serve on the respondent a notice identifying the alleged discriminatory housing practice and advising such respondent of the procedural rights and obligations of respondents under this subchapter, together with a copy of the original complaint; (iii) each respondent may file, not later than 10 days after receipt of notice from the Secretary, an answer to such complaint; and (iv) the Secretary shall make an investigation of the alleged discriminatory housing practice and complete such investigation within 100 days after the filing of the complaint (or, when the Secretary takes further action under subsection (f)(2) of this section with respect to a complaint, within 100 days after the commencement of such further action), unless it is impracticable to do so. (C) If the Secretary is unable to complete the investigation within 100 days after the filing of the complaint (or, when the Secretary takes further action under subsection (f)(2) of this section with respect to a complaint, within 100 days after the commencement of such further action), the Secretary shall notify the complainant and respondent in writing of the reasons for not doing so. (D) Complaints and answers shall be under oath or affirmation, and may be reasonably and fairly amended at any time. (2)(A) A person who is not named as a respondent in a complaint, but who is identified as a respondent in the course of investigation, may be joined as an additional or substitute respondent upon written notice, under paragraph (1), to such person, from the Secretary. (B) Such notice, in addition to meeting the requirements of paragraph (1), shall explain the basis for the Secretary's belief that the person to whom the notice is addressed is properly joined as a respondent. (b) Investigative report and conciliation (1) During the period beginning with the filing of such complaint and ending with the filing of a charge or a dismissal by the Secretary, the Secretary shall, to the extent feasible, engage in conciliation with respect to such complaint. (2) A conciliation agreement arising out of such conciliation shall be an agreement between the respondent and the complainant, and shall be subject to approval by the Secretary. (3) A conciliation agreement may provide for binding arbitration of the dispute arising from the complaint. Any such arbitration that results from a conciliation agreement may award appropriate relief, including monetary relief. (4) Each conciliation agreement shall be made public unless the complainant and respondent otherwise agree and the Secretary determines that disclosure is not required to further the purposes of this subchapter. (5)(A) At the end of each investigation under this section, the Secretary shall prepare a final investigative report containing-- (i) the names and dates of contacts with witnesses; (ii) a summary and the dates of correspondence and other contacts with the aggrieved person and the respondent; (iii) a summary description of other pertinent records; (iv) a summary of witness statements; and (v) answers to interrogatories. (B) A final report under this paragraph may be amended if additional evidence is later discovered. (c) Failure to comply with conciliation agreement Whenever the Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that a respondent has breached a conciliation agreement, the Secretary shall refer the matter to the Attorney General with a recommendation that a civil action be filed under section 3614 of this title for the enforcement of such agreement.
(d) Prohibitions and requirements with respect to disclosure of information (1) Nothing said or done in the course of conciliation under this subchapter may be made public or used as evidence in a subsequent proceeding under this subchapter without the written consent of the persons concerned. (2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), the Secretary shall make available to the aggrieved person and the respondent, at any time, upon request following completion of the Secretary's investigation, information derived from an investigation and any final investigative report relating to that investigation. (e) Prompt judicial action (1) If the Secretary concludes at any time following the filing of a complaint that prompt judicial action is necessary to carry out the purposes of this subchapter, the Secretary may authorize a civil action for appropriate temporary or preliminary relief pending final disposition of the complaint under this section. Upon receipt of such an authorization, the Attorney General shall promptly commence and maintain such an action. Any temporary restraining order or other order granting preliminary or temporary relief shall be issued in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. The commencement of a civil action under this subsection does not affect the initiation or continuation of administrative proceedings under this section and section 3612 of this title. (2) Whenever the Secretary has reason to believe that a basis may exist for the commencement of proceedings against any respondent under sections 3614(a) and 3614(c) of this title or for proceedings by any governmental licensing or supervisory authorities, the Secretary shall transmit the information upon which such belief is based to the Attorney General, or to such authorities, as the case may be. (f) Referral for State or local proceedings (1) Whenever a complaint alleges a discriminatory housing practice-- (A) within the jurisdiction of a State or local public agency; and (B) as to which such agency has been certified by the Secretary under this subsection; the Secretary shall refer such complaint to that certified agency before taking any action with respect to such complaint. (2) Except with the consent of such certified agency, the Secretary, after that referral is made, shall take no further action with respect to such complaint unless-- (A) the certified agency has failed to commence proceedings with respect to the complaint before the end of the 30th day after the date of such referral; (B) the certified agency, having so commenced such proceedings, fails to carry forward such proceedings with reasonable promptness; or (C) the Secretary determines that the certified agency no longer qualifies for certification under this subsection with respect to the relevant jurisdiction. (3)(A) The Secretary may certify an agency under this subsection only if the Secretary determines that-- (i) the substantive rights protected by such agency in the jurisdiction with respect to which certification is to be made; (ii) the procedures followed by such agency; (iii) the remedies available to such agency; and (iv) the availability of judicial review of such agency's action; are substantially equivalent to those created by and under this subchapter. (B) Before making such certification, the Secretary shall take into account the current practices and past performance, if any, of such agency. (4) During the period which begins on September 13, 1988, and ends 40 months after September 13, 1988, each agency certified (including an agency certified for interim referrals pursuant to 24 CFR 115.11, unless such agency is subsequently denied recognition under 24 CFR 115.7) for the purposes of this subchapter on the day before September 13, 1988, shall for the purposes of this subsection be considered certified under this subsection with respect to those matters for which such agency was certified on September 13, 1988. If the Secretary determines in an individual case that an agency has not been able to meet the certification requirements within this 40-month period due to exceptional circumstances, such as the infrequency of legislative sessions in that jurisdiction, the Secretary may extend such period by not more than 8 months. (5) Not less frequently than every 5 years, the Secretary shall determine whether each agency certified under this subsection continues to qualify for certification. The Secretary shall take appropriate action with respect to any agency not so qualifying. (g) Reasonable cause determination and effect (1) The Secretary shall, within 100 days after the filing of the complaint (or, when the Secretary takes further action under subsection (f)(2) of this section with respect to a complaint, within 100 days after the commencement of such further action), determine based on the facts whether reasonable cause exists to believe that a discriminatory housing practice has occurred or is about to occur, unless it is impracticable to do so, or unless the Secretary has approved a conciliation agreement with respect to the complaint. If the Secretary is unable to make the determination within 100 days after the filing of the complaint (or, when the Secretary takes further action under subsection (f)(2) of this section with respect to a complaint, within 100 days after the commencement of such further action), the Secretary shall notify the complainant and respondent in writing of the reasons for not doing so. (2)(A) If the Secretary determines that reasonable cause exists to believe that a discriminatory housing practice has occurred or is about to occur, the Secretary shall, except as provided in subparagraph (C), immediately issue a charge on behalf of the aggrieved person, for further proceedings under section 3612 of this title. (B) Such charge-- (i) shall consist of a short and plain statement of the facts upon which the Secretary has found reasonable cause to believe that a discriminatory housing practice has occurred or is about to occur; (ii) shall be based on the final investigative report; and (iii) need not be limited to the facts or grounds alleged in the complaint filed under subsection (a) of this section. (C) If the Secretary determines that the matter involves the legality of any State or local zoning or other land use law or ordinance, the Secretary shall immediately refer the matter to the Attorney General for appropriate action under section 3614 of this title, instead of issuing such charge. (3) If the Secretary determines that no reasonable cause exists to believe that a discriminatory housing practice has occurred or is about to occur, the Secretary shall promptly dismiss the complaint. The Secretary shall make public disclosure of each such dismissal. (4) The Secretary may not issue a charge under this section regarding an alleged discriminatory housing practice after the beginning of the trial of a civil action commenced by the aggrieved party under an Act of Congress or a State law, seeking relief with respect to that discriminatory housing practice. (h) Service of copies of charge After the Secretary issues a charge under this section, the Secretary shall cause a copy thereof, together with information as to how to make an election under section 3612(a) of this title and the effect of such an election, to be served-- (1) on each respondent named in such charge, together with a notice of opportunity for a hearing at a time and place specified in the notice, unless that election is made; and (2) on each aggrieved person on whose behalf the complaint was filed. (Pub. L. 90-284, title VIII, Sec. 810, as added Pub. L. 100-430, Sec. 8(2), Sept. 13, 1988, 102 Stat. 1625.) References in Text The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (e)(1), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. Prior Provisions A prior section 3610, Pub. L. 90-284, title VIII, Sec. 810, Apr. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 85, related to enforcement, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100-430, Sec. 8(2). Effective Date Section effective on 180th day beginning after Sept. 13, 1988, see section 13(a) of Pub. L. 100-430, set out as an Effective Date of 1988 Amendment note under section 3601 of this title.