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Miseducation

Is There Racial Inequality at Your School?

Based on civil rights data released by the U.S. Department of Education, ProPublica has built an interactive database to examine racial disparities in educational opportunities and school discipline. Look up more than 96,000 individual public and charter schools and 17,000 districts to see how they compare with their counterparts. About Our Data | Related Story | Local Stories

Race

Black
Hispanic

Measure

Opportunity
Discipline
Segregation
Achievement Gap

School districts where White students are more likely to be in an Advanced Placement class or gifted and talented program, compared with Black students.


Note: When unified school districts do not exist, we display secondary school districts. In districts where there are too few students of a specific group to calculate a measure, we omitted the result.

Nationally, White students are 1.8 times as likely as Black students to be in an Advanced Placement class.

50.6M Students | 3.22M Teachers | 17.3K Districts | 96.4K Schools | 334 Districts Under Desegregation Order

All States

Compare student access to opportunities and discipline on average, across states. Click on each state for full details.

BlackBlack

HispanicHispanic

State Nonwhite Students Students Who Get Free/Reduced-Price Lunch High School Graduation Rate Opportunity (White students are this number of times as likely to be in an AP class, compared with Black students) Discipline (Black students are this number of times as likely to be suspended, compared with White students)
National 51% 52% 84% 1.8x 3.9x
Alabama 45% 51% 87% 1.8x 3.7x
Alaska 52% 43% 76% 1.5x 3.3x
Arizona 60% 44% 80% 1.8x 3.4x
Arkansas 38% 63% 87% 1.5x 3.6x
California 76% 59% 83% 1.8x 3.4x
Colorado 46% 42% 79% 1.4x 3.3x
Connecticut 44% 38% 87% 2.3x 6x
Delaware 54% 38% 86% 2.1x 3.5x
District of Columbia 90% 77% 69% 1.5x 11.7x
Florida 61% 59% 81% 2.2x 2.4x
Georgia 59% 62% 79% 1.8x 3.6x
Hawaii 87% 50% 83% Not Available Not Available
Idaho 24% 47% 80% Not Available Not Available
Illinois 51% 50% 86% 1.9x 4.6x
Indiana 31% 48% 87% 1.9x 4.5x
Iowa 23% 41% 91% 1.2x 5.4x
Kansas 35% 49% 86% 2.1x 5x
Kentucky 22% 59% 89% 1.7x 3.5x
Louisiana 54% 58% 79% 1.8x 2.5x
Maine 10% 46% 87% 1.6x 2.4x
Maryland 62% 45% 88% 2.3x 3x
Massachusetts 38% 40% 88% 1.6x 4x
Michigan 33% 46% 80% 2.6x 4.1x
Minnesota 32% 38% 82% 1.9x 6.2x
Mississippi 56% 75% 82% 2.1x 3.1x
Missouri 28% 50% 89% 1.5x 4.4x
Montana 21% 45% 86% Not Available Not Available
Nebraska 33% 44% 89% 1.5x 5.3x
Nevada 66% 57% 74% 2.1x 3.9x
New Hampshire 14% 28% 88% Not Available Not Available
New Jersey 53% 38% 90% 2.5x 5.4x
New Mexico 76% 72% 71% Not Available Not Available
New York 55% 49% 80% 2.1x 2.6x
North Carolina 51% 57% 86% 2.6x 3.3x
North Dakota 22% 31% 88%

Less Likely

3.2x
Ohio 28% 45% 84% 2.3x 4.8x
Oklahoma 50% 61% 82% 1.2x 3.6x
Oregon 37% 50% 75% Not Available Not Available
Pennsylvania 33% 47% 86% 2.3x 5.6x
Rhode Island 41% 47% 83% 1.3x 3x
South Carolina 49% 60% 83% 3.2x 2.9x
South Dakota 25% 42% 84% 1.3x 4x
Tennessee 36% 58% 89% 2.1x 4.9x
Texas 72% 59% 89% 1.6x 4.6x
Utah 24% 36% 85% Not Available Not Available
Vermont 10% 38% 88% 1.6x 3.1x
Virginia 50% 41% 87% 2.1x 3.7x
Washington 44% 45% 80% 1.2x 3x
West Virginia 10% 49% 90% 1.1x 2.5x
Wisconsin 29% 39% 88% 2.3x 7.5x
Wyoming 22% 37% 80% Not Available Not Available
State Nonwhite Students Students Who Get Free/Reduced-Price Lunch High School Graduation Rate Opportunity (White students are this number of times as likely to be in an AP class, compared with Hispanic students) Discipline (Hispanic students are this number of times as likely to be suspended, compared with White students)
National 51% 52% 84% 1.3x 1.3x
Alabama 45% 51% 87% 2.5x

Less Likely

Alaska 52% 43% 76% 1.2x 1.6x
Arizona 60% 44% 80% 1.7x 1.4x
Arkansas 38% 63% 87% 1.2x

Less Likely

California 76% 59% 83% 1.6x 1.1x
Colorado 46% 42% 79% 2x 1.7x
Connecticut 44% 38% 87% 2.8x 3.6x
Delaware 54% 38% 86% 2.5x 1.5x
District of Columbia 90% 77% 69% 1.1x 3.7x
Florida 61% 59% 81% 1.3x

Less Likely

Georgia 59% 62% 79% 1.7x 1.3x
Hawaii 87% 50% 83% 2.8x 1.1x
Idaho 24% 47% 80% 1.5x 1.4x
Illinois 51% 50% 86% 1.3x 1.3x
Indiana 31% 48% 87% 1.7x 1.5x
Iowa 23% 41% 91% 1.2x 1.7x
Kansas 35% 49% 86% 1.8x 1.5x
Kentucky 22% 59% 89% 1.6x 1.1x
Louisiana 54% 58% 79% 1.5x 1.1x
Maine 10% 46% 87% Not Available Not Available
Maryland 62% 45% 88% 2.3x 1.1x
Massachusetts 38% 40% 88% 2.3x 3.1x
Michigan 33% 46% 80% 2.1x 1.6x
Minnesota 32% 38% 82% 2.1x 2.4x
Mississippi 56% 75% 82% 1.9x 1.1x
Missouri 28% 50% 89% 1.4x 1.4x
Montana 21% 45% 86% 1.8x 1.8x
Nebraska 33% 44% 89% 1.7x 1.6x
Nevada 66% 57% 74% 1.5x 1.4x
New Hampshire 14% 28% 88% 2x 2.6x
New Jersey 53% 38% 90% 2.3x 2.4x
New Mexico 76% 72% 71% 1.4x 1.3x
New York 55% 49% 80% 2.2x

Less Likely

North Carolina 51% 57% 86% 2.6x 1.3x
North Dakota 22% 31% 88% 1.8x 1.8x
Ohio 28% 45% 84% 2.1x 2x
Oklahoma 50% 61% 82% 1.3x 1.2x
Oregon 37% 50% 75% 1.5x 1.2x
Pennsylvania 33% 47% 86% 2.7x 3x
Rhode Island 41% 47% 83% 1.5x 2.1x
South Carolina 49% 60% 83% 2.2x 1.1x
South Dakota 25% 42% 84% 1.9x 2.4x
Tennessee 36% 58% 89% 1.7x 1.3x
Texas 72% 59% 89% 1.4x 1.7x
Utah 24% 36% 85% 1.6x 2.3x
Vermont 10% 38% 88% Not Available Not Available
Virginia 50% 41% 87% 1.9x 1.2x
Washington 44% 45% 80% 1.9x 1.4x
West Virginia 10% 49% 90% Not Available Not Available
Wisconsin 29% 39% 88% 1.9x 2.1x
Wyoming 22% 37% 80% 1.4x 1.6x
Local Stories
Sources & Notes

Sources: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights, Stanford University's Center for Education Policy Analysis, EDFacts, U.S. Department of Education’s Common Core of Data. Maps courtesy of Mapbox Community. Read our methodology

Notes: The U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights occasionally updates the underlying dataset. ProPublica may update the interactive’s data in response.

Disparity scores are not available if there are too few students in a specific racial group to make a statistically significant calculation. They are also not available if data about a particular racial group was not reported. Some schools or districts reported an overcount of students in a disparity category (such as suspensions or AP courses) when compared with the total enrollment of that particular student group. In such cases, we also omit the disparity score.

Additional development by Mike Tigas and Sisi Wei. Additional data analysis by Jeff Ernsthausen and Ryann Grochowski Jones.

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