ProPublica

Journalism in the Public Interest

Cancel

Prescriber Checkup

At A Glance: This Prescriber in 2012

Family Medicine

Self-Reported Primary Specialty

See Other Prescribers With This Specialty in This State »

19,659Medicare Part D Prescriptions Filled, Including Refills

Rank: 70 out of 1107

$846K Total Retail Price of All Prescriptions

Rank: 145 out of 1107

379 Patients Receiving at Least One Drug in Part D
74%Patients 65 Years and Older
76% Subsidized Claims for Low-Income Patients

How Does This Prescriber Compare to Peers?

In the same specialty and state. Caveats »

Drugs That Present Special Risks
Costs of Prescribing
Higher avg Average for
this specialty
in Kentucky
Lower avg

Schedule Two
Controlled Substances

8% of this provider’s 379 patients filled at least one prescription for a schedule two drug, compared to an average of 5%.

Schedule Three
Controlled Substances

37% of this provider’s 379 patients filled at least one prescription for a schedule three drug, compared to an average of 17%.

Risky Drugs to Seniors

2% of this provider’s 16,171 prescriptions for patients 65 and older were for "potentially dangerous" drugs, compared to an average of 2%.

Brand Name Drugs

23% of this provider’s prescriptions were for brand-name drugs, compared to an average of 23%.

Prescription Price

$43 was the average price of a prescription from this provider, compared to $55 among peers.

Prescriptions per Patient

52 is the average number of prescriptions (including refills) per patient, compared to an average of 23.


Another View

This chart shows a different comparison of all providers in this specialty based on their mix of drugs and volume. Providers are grouped by similarity; those least like their peers are farthest to the right. Hover over the bars to see names of other prescribers.

← Prescribers more like their peers Prescribers less like their peers →
KEY: How to read this
chart

Fewer Prescribers
More Prescribers

This Prescriber
Hover to see more prescribers

This Prescriber's Drugs

The table below list this provider’s drugs, the number of prescriptions and how many went to seniors. Drugs are ranked by volume and compared with the rank for all providers in the same specialty and state.

Click to Filter by Category

Clear Filter


S2

A schedule two drug. More » Schedule two drugs have a high potential for abuse and severe dependence, according to the Drug Enforcement Administration.

S3

A schedule three drug. More » Schedule three drugs have potential for abuse and dependence, according to the Drug Enforcement Administration.

A

An antipsychotic drug. More » Antipsychotics are frequently given to dementia patients, though it increases their risk of death.

R

A risky drug for seniors. More » The American Geriatrics Society has said this drug is "potentially dangerous" for seniors and might be inappropriate.

10

This provider is among the top 10 prescribers of
this drug in the country.

This provider’s prescriptions for this drug were for more days than those of peers. More » Because of this, his or her prescription count may be lower.

This provider’s prescriptions for this drug were for fewer days than those of peers. More » Because of this, his or her prescription count may be higher.

This Drug's Rank
Drug Name Total Prescriptions Filled
Including Refills
Prescriptions
to 65+
Category For this Prescriber For All Prescribers in
This Specialty in Kentucky
HYDROCODONE-ACETAMINOPHEN

Used to relieve moderate to... +

Used to relieve moderate to severe pain. More info »

803 616 S3 1 1
FUROSEMIDE

Treats fluid retention (ede... +

Treats fluid retention (edema) and high blood pressure (hypertension). More info »

565 459 2 7
LEVOTHYROXINE SODIUM

Levothyroxine, a thyroid ho... +

Levothyroxine, a thyroid hormone, is used to treat hypothyroidism, a condition where the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. Without this hormone, the body cannot function properly, resulting in: poor growth; slow speech; lack of energy; weight gain; hair loss; dry, thick skin; and increased sensitivity to cold. When taken correctly, levothyroxine reverses these symptoms. Levothyroxine is also used to treat congenital hypothyroidism (cretinism) and goiter (enlarged thyroid gland). More info »

554 481 3 3
METOPROLOL TARTRATE

Metoprolol is used alone or... +

Metoprolol is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure. It also is used to prevent angina (chest pain) and to improve survival after a heart attack. Extended-release (long-acting) metoprolol also is used in combination with other medications to treat heart failure. Metoprolol is in a class of medications called beta blockers. It works by relaxing blood vessels and slowing heart rate to improve blood flow and decrease blood pressure More info »

547 443 4 10
SIMVASTATIN

Treats high cholesterol and... +

Treats high cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood. Lowers risk of heart attack, stroke, and certain blood vessel problems in people with certain risk factors. This medicine is an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, also called a statin. More info »

523 472 5 5
LISINOPRIL

Treats high blood pressure ... +

Treats high blood pressure and heart failure. A lower blood pressure will reduce the risk of stroke and heart attack. Also used in the first few days after a heart attack to help reduce the risk of death. This medicine is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. More info »

507 385 6 2
OMEPRAZOLE

Treats heartburn, stomach u... +

Treats heartburn, stomach ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and conditions that cause your stomach to make too much acid, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, endocrine tumors, and systemic mastocytosis. Also helps heal a damaged esophagus, and helps prevent stomach bleeding in patients who have a serious illness. This medicine may be used in combination with antibiotics to treat ulcers. This medicine is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). More info »

467 356 7 4
AMLODIPINE BESYLATE

Amlodipine is used alone or... +

Amlodipine is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure and chest pain (angina). Amlodipine is in a class of medications called calcium channel blockers. It lowers blood pressure by relaxing the blood vessels so the heart does not have to pump as hard. It controls chest pain by increasing the supply of blood to the heart. If taken regularly, amlodipine controls chest pain, but it does not stop chest pain once it starts. Your doctor may prescribe a different medication to take when you have chest pain. More info »

462 379 8 6
METFORMIN HCL

Metformin is used alone or ... +

Metformin is used alone or with other medications, including insulin, to treat type 2 diabetes (condition in which the body does not use insulin normally and, therefore, cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood). Metformin is in a class of drugs called biguanides. Metformin helps to control the amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood. It decreases the amount of glucose you absorb from your food and the amount of glucose made by your liver. Metformin also increases your body's response to insulin, a natural substance that controls the amount of glucose in the blood. Metformin is not used to treat type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not produce insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood). More info »

460 348 9 8
ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM

Used together with diet, we... +

Used together with diet, weight loss, and exercise to reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke and to decrease the chance that heart surgery will be needed in people who have heart disease or who are at risk of developing heart disease. Atorvastatin is also used to decrease the amount of fatty substances such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ('bad cholesterol') and triglycerides in the blood and to increase the amount of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ('good cholesterol') in the blood. More info »

378 287 10 13
PREDNISONE

Treats inflammation (swelli... +

Treats inflammation (swelling), severe allergies, complications of chronic illnesses, and other medical problems. Also used to decrease some symptoms of cancer. This medicine is a steroid. More info »

371 286 11 40
CEPHALEXIN

Treats bacterial infections... +

Treats bacterial infections. Belongs to a class of drugs called cephalosporin antibiotics. More info »

360 261 12 81
PRAVASTATIN SODIUM

Pravastatin is used with di... +

Pravastatin is used with diet, weight-loss, and exercise to reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke and to decrease the chance that heart surgery will be needed in people who have heart disease or who are at risk of developing heart disease. Pravastatin is also used to reduce the amount of cholesterol (a fat-like substance) and other fatty substances in the blood. Pravastatin is in a class of medications called HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins). It works by slowing the production of cholesterol in the body to decrease the amount of cholesterol that may build up on the walls of the arteries and block blood flow to the heart, brain, and other parts of the body. More info »

345 266 13 12
RANITIDINE HCL

Ranitidine is used to treat... +

Ranitidine is used to treat ulcers; gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a condition in which backward flow of acid from the stomach causes heartburn and injury of the food pipe (esophagus); and conditions where the stomach produces too much acid, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Over-the-counter ranitidine is used to prevent and treat symptoms of heartburn associated with acid indigestion and sour stomach. Ranitidine is in a class of medications called H2 blockers. It decreases the amount of acid made in the stomach. More info »

322 300 14 21
WARFARIN SODIUM

Warfarin is used to prevent... +

Warfarin is used to prevent blood clots from forming or growing larger in your blood and blood vessels. It is prescribed for people with certain types of irregular heartbeat, people with prosthetic (replacement or mechanical) heart valves, and people who have suffered a heart attack. Warfarin is also used to treat or prevent venous thrombosis (swelling and blood clot in a vein) and pulmonary embolism (a blood clot in the lung). Warfarin is in a class of medications called anticoagulants ('blood thinners'). It works by decreasing the clotting ability of the blood. More info »

305 283 15 15
TRAZODONE HCL

Trazodone is used to treat ... +

Trazodone is used to treat depression. Trazodone is in a class of medications called serotonin modulators. It works by increasing the amount of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. More info »

302 284 16 33
THEOPHYLLINE ANHYDROUS

Theophylline is used to pre... +

Theophylline is used to prevent and treat wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness caused by asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other lung diseases. It relaxes and opens air passages in the lungs, making it easier to breathe. More info »

294 190 17 158
METOPROLOL SUCCINATE

Metoprolol is used alone or... +

Metoprolol is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure. It also is used to prevent angina (chest pain) and to improve survival after a heart attack. Extended-release (long-acting) metoprolol also is used in combination with other medications to treat heart failure. Metoprolol is in a class of medications called beta blockers. It works by relaxing blood vessels and slowing heart rate to improve blood flow and decrease blood pressure More info »

277 215 18 16
SERTRALINE HCL

Sertraline is used to treat... +

Sertraline is used to treat depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (bothersome thoughts that won't go away and the need to perform certain actions over and over), panic attacks (sudden, unexpected attacks of extreme fear and worry about these attacks), posttraumatic stress disorder (disturbing psychological symptoms that develop after a frightening experience), and social anxiety disorder (extreme fear of interacting with others or performing in front of others that interferes with normal life). It is also used to relieve the symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder, including mood swings, irritability, bloating, and breast tenderness. Sertraline is in a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It works by increasing the amounts of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. More info »

274 208 19 20
AZITHROMYCIN

Treats infections caused by... +

Treats infections caused by certain bacteria. This medicine is a macrolide antibiotic. More info »

245 191 20 35
RISPERIDONE

Treats schizophrenia and ce... +

Treats schizophrenia and certain problems caused by bipolar disorder. More info »

220 185 21 79
CLOPIDOGREL

Clopidogrel is used alone o... +

Clopidogrel is used alone or with aspirin to prevent serious or life-threatening problems with the heart and blood vessels in people who have had a stroke, heart attack, or severe chest pain. This includes people who have percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI; angioplasty; a type of heart surgery) that may involve inserting coronary stents (metal tubes surgically placed in clogged blood vessels to improve blood flow) or who have coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG; a type of heart surgery). More info »

217 186 22 28
CARVEDILOL

Treats high blood pressure ... +

Treats high blood pressure and congestive heart failure (CHF). Also reduces the risk of death from a heart attack. This medicine is a beta-blocker. More info »

205 159 23 27
NAMENDA

Treats dementia (memory los... +

Treats dementia (memory loss and mental changes) that is a sign of Alzheimer's disease. More info »

203 199 24 42
TRIAMTERENE-HCTZ

The combination of triamter... +

The combination of triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide is used to treat high blood pressure and edema (fluid retention; excess fluid held in body tissues) in patients who have lower amounts of potassium in their bodies or for whom low potassium levels in the body could be dangerous. The combination of triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide is in a class of medications called diuretics ('water pills'). It causes the kidneys to get rid of unneeded water and sodium from the body into the urine, but reduces the loss of potassium. More info »

200 171 25 62
SPIRONOLACTONE

Treats fluid retention (ede... +

Treats fluid retention (edema) in patients with congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, or nephrotic syndrome. Also treats high blood pressure, heart failure, and low blood potassium (hypokalemia). This medicine is a diuretic (water pill). More info »

196 166 26 72
POTASSIUM CHLORIDE

Potassium is needed to main... +

Potassium is needed to maintain good health. More info »

186 165 27 14
DONEPEZIL HCL

Donepezil is used to treat ... +

Donepezil is used to treat dementia (a brain disorder that affects the ability to remember, think clearly, communicate, and perform daily activities and may cause changes in mood and personality) associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD; a brain disease that slowly destroys the memory and the ability to think, learn, communicate and handle daily activities). Donepezil is in a class of medications called cholinesterase inhibitors. It improves mental function (such as memory, attention, social interaction, reasoning and language abilities, and ability to perform activities of daily living) by increasing the amount of a certain naturally occurring substance in the brain. Donepezil may improve the ability to think and remember or slow the loss of these abilities in people who have AD. However, donepezil will not cure AD or prevent the loss of mental abilities at some time in the future. More info »

177 174 28 32
CITALOPRAM HBR

Citalopram is used to treat... +

Citalopram is used to treat depression. Citalopram is in a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It is thought to work by increasing the amount of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. More info »

176 139 29 17
NYSTATIN

Treats fungus infections in... +

Treats fungus infections in the mouth, throat, and intestines. Belongs to a class of drugs called antifungals. More info »

172 155 30 110
NEXIUM

Treats heartburn, gastroeso... +

Treats heartburn, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and conditions that cause your stomach to make too much acid. Also helps heal a damaged esophagus. Prevents stomach ulcers and stomach irritation in patients who take pain or arthritis medicine or NSAID. This medicine may be used in combination with antibiotics to treat ulcers. This medicine is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). More info »

162 114 31 18
LOSARTAN POTASSIUM

Losartan is used alone or i... +

Losartan is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure. Losartan is also used to decrease the risk of stroke in people who have high blood pressure and a heart condition called left ventricular hypertrophy (enlargement of the walls of the left side of the heart). Losartan may not decrease the risk of stroke in African Americans who have these conditions. This medication is also used to treat kidney disease in people who have type 2 diabetes (condition in which the body does not use insulin normally and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood) and high blood pressure. Losartan is in a class of medications called angiotensin II receptor antagonists. It works by blocking the action of certain natural substances that tighten the blood vessels, allowing the blood to flow more smoothly and the heart to pump more efficiently. More info »

155 111 32 29
LANTUS

Treats diabetes mellitus. I... +

Treats diabetes mellitus. Insulin is a hormone that helps get sugar from the blood to the muscles, where it is used for energy. This type of insulin usually works longer than regular insulin. More info »

147 134 33 49
DOXYCYCLINE HYCLATE

Doxycycline is used to trea... +

Doxycycline is used to treat bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections; Lyme disease; acne; infections of skin, genital, and urinary systems; and anthrax (after inhalational exposure). It is also used to prevent malaria. Doxycycline is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by preventing the growth and spread of bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. More info »

146 109 34 128
DEXAMETHASONE SODIUM PHOSPHATE 144 133 35 362
LANTUS SOLOSTAR

Treats diabetes mellitus. I... +

Treats diabetes mellitus. Insulin is a hormone that helps get sugar from the blood to the muscles, where it is used for energy. This type of insulin usually works longer than regular insulin. More info »

142 142 36 129
PROMETHAZINE HCL

Promethazine is used to rel... +

Promethazine is used to relieve the symptoms of allergic reactions such as allergic rhinitis (runny nose and watery eyes caused by allergy to pollen, mold or dust), allergic conjunctivitis (red, watery eyes caused by allergies), allergic skin reactions, and allergic reactions to blood or plasma products. Promethazine is used with other medications to treat anaphylaxis (sudden, severe allergic reactions) and the symptoms of the common cold such as sneezing, cough, and runny nose. Promethazine is also used to relax and sedate patients before and after surgery, during labor, and at other times. Promethazine is also used to prevent and control nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery, and with other medications to help relieve pain after surgery. Promethazine is also used to prevent and treat motion sickness. Promethazine helps control symptoms, but will not treat the cause of the symptoms or speed recovery. Promethazine is in a class of medications called phenothiazines. It works by blocking the action of a certain natural substance in the body. More info »

135 99 R 37 44
LEVOFLOXACIN

Levofloxacin is used to tre... +

Levofloxacin is used to treat certain infections such as pneumonia, chronic bronchitis and sinus, urinary tract, kidney, prostate (a male reproductive gland), and skin infections. Levofloxacin is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on purpose as part of a bioterror attack) in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. More info »

134 123 38 71
DIGOXIN

Treats certain heart rhythm... +

Treats certain heart rhythm problems (atrial fibrillation). Also used to treat heart failure, usually in combination with a diuretic (water pill) and an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. This medicine is also called digitalis. More info »

133 123 39 52
TAMSULOSIN HCL

Tamsulosin is used in men t... +

Tamsulosin is used in men to treat the symptoms of an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH) which include difficulty urinating (hesitation, dribbling, weak stream, and incomplete bladder emptying), painful urination, and urinary frequency and urgency. Tamsulosin is in a class of medications called alpha blockers. It works by relaxing the muscles in the prostate and bladder so that urine can flow easily. More info »

133 121 39 30
PLAVIX

Used alone or together with... +

Used alone or together with aspirin to help prevent stroke, heart attack, and other heart problems. This medicine is a blood thinner. More info »

131 112 41 39
NOVOLIN R

Treats diabetes mellitus. +

Treats diabetes mellitus. More info »

129 129 42 187
LACTULOSE

Treats constipation. Also t... +

Treats constipation. Also treats problems caused by liver disease. More info »

128 119 43 89
SUCRALFATE

Treats ulcers and other sto... +

Treats ulcers and other stomach problems. More info »

128 107 43 121
GABAPENTIN

Treats certain types of sei... +

Treats certain types of seizures. Also treats Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) and pain caused by shingles (postherpetic neuralgia). More info »

118 87 45 9
HYDRALAZINE HCL

Hydralazine is used to trea... +

Hydralazine is used to treat high blood pressure. It works by relaxing the blood vessels so that blood can flow more easily through the body. More info »

116 114 46 99
HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE

Used alone or together with... +

Used alone or together with other medicines to treat high blood pressure and fluid retention (edema). This medicine is a diuretic (water pill). More info »

111 81 47 11
CRESTOR

Lowers high levels of chole... +

Lowers high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides (fats) in your blood. Helps keep atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) from getting worse. Lowers the risk of stroke and heart attack in people who have certain risk factors. This medicine is an HMG-CoA inhibitor, also called a statin. More info »

110 76 48 23
LIPITOR

Lowers high cholesterol and... +

Lowers high cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood. Lowers the risk of chest pain, stroke, heart attack, or certain heart and blood vessel problems in people who have certain risk factors. This medicine is an HMG-CoA inhibitor, also called a statin. More info »

103 80 49 109
POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 3350

Treats occasional constipat... +

Treats occasional constipation. More info »

103 92 49 46
RAMIPRIL

Treats high blood pressure ... +

Treats high blood pressure and heart failure after a heart attack. Reduces risk of heart attack, stroke, and death in people 55 years and older who have heart disease. This medicine is an ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor. More info »

99 85 51 84
NIASPAN

Lowers cholesterol and trig... +

Lowers cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood and treats niacin deficiency (pellagra). Also reduces heart attack risk and narrowing of the arteries in people who have heart disease. This medicine is a vitamin (B3). More info »

97 73 52 125
DIOVAN

Treats high blood pressure ... +

Treats high blood pressure and heart failure. A lower blood pressure can reduce the risk of stroke and heart attack. May also prolong life after a heart attack. This medicine is an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). More info »

95 68 53 51
GLIPIZIDE

Used with diet and exercise... +

Used with diet and exercise to help control blood sugar in patients with type 2 diabetes. More info »

94 85 54 64
CARAFATE

Treats ulcers and other sto... +

Treats ulcers and other stomach problems. More info »

90 89 55 248
IPRATROPIUM-ALBUTEROL

The combination of albutero... +

The combination of albuterol and ipratropium is used to prevent wheezing, difficulty breathing, chest tightness, and coughing in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs and airways) such as chronic bronchitis (swelling of the air passages that lead to the lungs) and emphysema (damage to the air sacs in the lungs). Albuterol and ipratropium combination is used by people whose symptoms have not been controlled by a single inhaled medication. Albuterol and ipratropium are in a class of medications called bronchodilators. Albuterol and ipratropium combination works by relaxing and opening the air passages to the lungs to make breathing easier. More info »

90 81 55 154
DOXEPIN HCL

Doxepin is used to treat de... +

Doxepin is used to treat depression and anxiety. Doxepin is in a class of medications called tricyclic antidepressants. It works by increasing the amounts of certain natural substances in the brain that are needed for mental balance. More info »

89 62 57 180
DIVALPROEX SODIUM

Treats seizures (epilepsy).... +

Treats seizures (epilepsy). Also used to treat the manic phase of bipolar disorder (manic-depressive illness) and to prevent migraine headaches. Belongs to a class of drugs called anticonvulsants. More info »

86 77 58 96
ALENDRONATE SODIUM

Alendronate is used to trea... +

Alendronate is used to treat and prevent osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break easily) in women who have undergone menopause (''change of life,'' end of menstrual periods) and to treat osteoporosis in men. Alendronate is also used to treat osteoporosis in men and women who are taking corticosteroids (a type of medication that may cause osteoporosis in some patients). Alendronate is also used to treat Paget's disease of bone (a condition in which the bones are soft and weak and may be deformed, painful, or easily broken). Alendronate is in a class of medications called bisphosphonates. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing bone density (thickness). More info »

83 71 59 41
JANUVIA

Treats type 2 diabetes. Use... +

Treats type 2 diabetes. Used together with proper diet and exercise to help control high blood sugar. More info »

81 75 60 60
SPIRIVA

Prevents the symptoms of br... +

Prevents the symptoms of bronchospasm caused by emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). This medicine is a bronchodilator. More info »

78 63 61 57
ISOSORBIDE MONONITRATE ER

Used to prevent or treat ch... +

Used to prevent or treat chest pain (angina). It works by relaxing the blood vessels to the heart, so the blood and oxygen supply to the heart is increased. More info »

77 68 62 34
AMOXICILLIN

Treats infections. Also use... +

Treats infections. Also used with other medicines to treat stomach ulcer. This medicine is a penicillin antibiotic. More info »

76 50 63 90
CARBIDOPA-LEVODOPA

The combination of levodopa... +

The combination of levodopa and carbidopa is used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and Parkinson's-like symptoms that may develop after encephalitis (swelling of the brain) or injury to the nervous system caused by carbon monoxide poisoning or manganese poisoning. Parkinson's symptoms, including tremors (shaking), stiffness, and slowness of movement, are caused by a lack of dopamine, a natural substance usually found in the brain. Levodopa is in a class of medications called central nervous system agents. It works by being converted to dopamine in the brain. Carbidopa is in a class of medications called decarboxylase inhibitors. It works by preventing levodopa from being broken down before it reaches the brain. This allows for a lower dose of levodopa, which causes less nausea and vomiting. More info »

75 73 64 122
ATENOLOL

Treats high blood pressure ... +

Treats high blood pressure and angina (chest pain). May also lower the risk of repeated heart attacks. More info »

72 48 65 19
ZOLPIDEM TARTRATE

Zolpidem is used to treat i... +

Zolpidem is used to treat insomnia (difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep). Zolpidem belongs to a class of medications called sedative-hypnotics. It works by slowing activity in the brain to allow sleep. More info »

71 32 66 22
TRIAMCINOLONE ACETONIDE

Triamcinolone is used to tr... +

Triamcinolone is used to treat the itching, redness, dryness, crusting, scaling, inflammation, and discomfort of various skin conditions. It is also used to relieve the discomfort of mouth sores. More info »

71 57 66 137
FLUTICASONE PROPIONATE

Treats stuffy nose caused b... +

Treats stuffy nose caused by hay fever and other allergies. This medicine is a corticosteroid. More info »

70 56 68 38
CYMBALTA

Treats depression, anxiety,... +

Treats depression, anxiety, diabetic peripheral neuropathy (nerve pain caused by diabetes), fibromyalgia (muscle pain and stiffness), or chronic (long-lasting) pain related to muscles and bones. This medicine is a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI). More info »

69 45 69 50
EXELON

Rivastigmine is used to tre... +

Rivastigmine is used to treat mild to moderate dementia (memory loss) associated with Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease. More info »

66 66 70 103
MIRTAZAPINE

Treats depression. +

Treats depression. More info »

65 62 71 61
BENAZEPRIL HCL

Benazepril is used alone or... +

Benazepril is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure. Benazepril is in a class of medications called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. It works by decreasing certain chemicals that tighten the blood vessels, so blood flows more smoothly. More info »

63 63 72 86
FINASTERIDE

Treats an enlarged prostate... +

Treats an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH) in men and causes hair growth in male pattern baldness. It may be used alone or in combination with other medicines such as an alpha-blocker (doxazosin, Carduraå¨) to treat BPH. This medicine is a 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor. More info »

62 39 73 130
MUPIROCIN

Treats skin infections and... +

Treats skin infections and bacterial infections in your nose. More info »

62 56 73 161
GLIPIZIDE XL

Glipizide is used along wit... +

Glipizide is used along with diet and exercise, and sometimes with other medications, to treat type 2 diabetes (condition in which the body does not use insulin normally and, therefore, cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood). Glipizide is in a class of medications called sulfonylureas. Glipizide lowers blood sugar by causing the pancreas to produce insulin (a natural substance that is needed to break down sugar in the body) and helping the body use insulin efficiently. This medication will only help lower blood sugar in people whose bodies produce insulin naturally. Glipizide is not used to treat type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not produce insulin and, therefore, cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood) or diabetic ketoacidosis (a serious condition that may occur if high blood sugar is not treated). More info »

62 51 73 166
QUINAPRIL HCL

Quinapril is used alone or ... +

Quinapril is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure. It is used in combination with other medications to treat heart failure. Quinapril is in a class of medications called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. It works by decreasing certain chemicals that tighten the blood vessels, so blood flows more smoothly and the heart can pump blood more efficiently. More info »

62 46 73 145
INSULIN SYRINGE 60 28 77 78
ALLOPURINOL

Treats gout and some kinds ... +

Treats gout and some kinds of kidney stones. Lowers the amount of uric acid in blood. More info »

59 46 78 36
LOSARTAN-HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE

This drug is used to treat ... +

This drug is used to treat high blood pressure. It is also used to lower the risk of strokes in patients with high blood pressure and an enlarged heart. More info »

57 46 79 66
FLUCONAZOLE

Prevents and treats certain... +

Prevents and treats certain fungus infections. Belongs to a class of drugs called antifungals. More info »

56 39 80 150
AMITRIPTYLINE HCL

Amitriptyline is used to tr... +

Amitriptyline is used to treat symptoms of depression. Amitriptyline is in a class of medications called tricyclic antidepressants. It works by increasing the amounts of certain natural substances in the brain that are needed to maintain mental balance. More info »

54 30 R 81 48
HUMALOG

Treats diabetes mellitus. I... +

Treats diabetes mellitus. Insulin is a hormone that helps get sugar from the blood to the muscles, where it is used for energy. This type of insulin starts working faster than regular insulin. More info »

53 53 82 226
NOVOLIN 70-30

Insulin injection is used t... +

Insulin injection is used to control blood sugar in people who have type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not make insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood) or in people who have type 2 diabetes (condition in which the blood sugar is too high because the body does not produce or use insulin normally) that cannot be controlled with oral medications alone. Insulin injection is in a class of medications called hormones. Insulin injection is used to take the place of insulin that is normally produced by the body. It works by helping move sugar from the blood into other body tissues where it is used for energy. It also stops the liver from producing more sugar. All of the types of insulin that are available work in this way. The types of insulin differ only in how quickly they begin to work and how long they continue to control blood sugar. More info »

53 52 82 209
HUMULIN R

Treats diabetes mellitus. +

Treats diabetes mellitus. More info »

52 51 84 462
FLUOXETINE HCL

Fluoxetine (Prozac) is used... +

Fluoxetine (Prozac) is used to treat depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (bothersome thoughts that won't go away and the need to perform certain actions over and over), some eating disorders, and panic attacks (sudden, unexpected attacks of extreme fear and worry about these attacks). Fluoxetine (Sarafem) is used to relieve the symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder, including mood swings, irritability, bloating, and breast tenderness. Fluoxetine is in a class of medications called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It works by increasing the amount of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. More info »

52 42 84 47
RESTASIS

Treats chronic dry eye dise... +

Treats chronic dry eye disease by increasing the amount of tears in your eyes. More info »

52 51 84 338
VALPROIC ACID

Treats seizures (epilepsy).... +

Treats seizures (epilepsy). Also used to treat mood disorders and prevent migraine headaches. This medicine is an anticonvulsant. More info »

50 50 87 231
SOTALOL

Treats an irregular heartbe... +

Treats an irregular heartbeat. This medicine is a beta blocker. More info »

50 37 87 222
BENZTROPINE MESYLATE

Treats symptoms of Parkinso... +

Treats symptoms of Parkinson's disease or side effects of other drugs. More info »

50 49 R 87 174
About This Data

ProPublica obtained prescribing data from Medicare’s prescription drug benefit, known as Part D, under the Freedom of Information Act. The data for 2012 includes more than 1.2 billion prescriptions written by nearly 1.5 million doctors, nurses and other providers. This database lists about 382,000 of those providers who wrote 50 or more prescriptions for at least one drug that year. Almost three-fourths went to patients 65 and older; the rest were for disabled patients. Methodology »

Incorrect Info?

If you are a provider and you believe your address is incorrect, check the listing you created on the National Provider Identifier registry. If you change your listing, send a note to drugs@propublica.org and we will update your information. If you have other questions about this data, send a note to drugs@propublica.org.

Caveats
  • No comparisons are shown if 10 or fewer prescribers in the state share this specialty.
  • The list of top drugs includes only those for which this provider wrote 50 or more prescriptions, but all prescriptions are counted in the summary totals at the top.
  • The calculation of “Risky Drugs to Seniors” does not include drugs for which a provider wrote 11 or fewer prescriptions because Medicare redacted the information to protect patient privacy.
  • Comparisons do not take into account the medical conditions of patients. Medications for certain conditions do not have generic alternatives, so patients would receive more expensive brand name drugs.
  • This provider's address and specialty information was last updated on March 25, 2013.
  • Comparisons are based on each provider’s current address, not necessarily where he or she worked during the time period covered in this database.