At A Glance: This Prescriber in 2012
Self-Reported Primary Specialty
Rank: 6 out of 106
Rank: 12 out of 106
How Does This Prescriber Compare to Peers?
15% of this provider’s 563 patients filled at least one prescription for a schedule two drug, compared to an average of 4%.
13% of this provider’s 563 patients filled at least one prescription for a schedule three drug, compared to an average of 9%.
Risky Drugs to Seniors
2% of this provider’s 3,659 prescriptions for patients 65 and older were for "potentially dangerous" drugs, compared to an average of 3%.
Brand Name Drugs
25% of this provider’s prescriptions were for brand-name drugs, compared to an average of 24%.
$136 was the average price of a prescription from this provider, compared to $175 among peers.
Prescriptions per Patient
13 is the average number of prescriptions (including refills) per patient, compared to an average of 11.
This chart shows a different comparison of all providers in this specialty based on their mix of drugs and volume. Providers are grouped by similarity; those least like their peers are farthest to the right. Hover over the bars to see names of other prescribers.
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This Prescriber's Drugs
The table below list this provider’s drugs, the number of prescriptions and how many went to seniors. Drugs are ranked by volume and compared with the rank for all providers in the same specialty and state.
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A schedule two drug. More » Schedule two drugs have a high potential for abuse and severe dependence, according to the Drug Enforcement Administration.
A schedule three drug. More » Schedule three drugs have potential for abuse and dependence, according to the Drug Enforcement Administration.
An antipsychotic drug. More » Antipsychotics are frequently given to dementia patients, though it increases their risk of death.
A risky drug for seniors. More » The American Geriatrics Society has said this drug is "potentially dangerous" for seniors and might be inappropriate.
This provider is among the top 10 prescribers of
this drug in the country.
This provider’s prescriptions for this drug were for more days than those of peers. More » Because of this, his or her prescription count may be lower.
This provider’s prescriptions for this drug were for fewer days than those of peers. More » Because of this, his or her prescription count may be higher.
This Drug's Rank
Total Prescriptions Filled
|Category||For this Prescriber||
For All Prescribers in
This Specialty in Alabama
Treats certain types of sei... +
Treats certain types of seizures. Also treats Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) and pain caused by shingles (postherpetic neuralgia). More info »
Donepezil is used to treat ... +
Donepezil is used to treat dementia (a brain disorder that affects the ability to remember, think clearly, communicate, and perform daily activities and may cause changes in mood and personality) associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD; a brain disease that slowly destroys the memory and the ability to think, learn, communicate and handle daily activities). Donepezil is in a class of medications called cholinesterase inhibitors. It improves mental function (such as memory, attention, social interaction, reasoning and language abilities, and ability to perform activities of daily living) by increasing the amount of a certain naturally occurring substance in the brain. Donepezil may improve the ability to think and remember or slow the loss of these abilities in people who have AD. However, donepezil will not cure AD or prevent the loss of mental abilities at some time in the future. More info »
Used to relieve moderate to... +
Used to relieve moderate to severe pain. More info »
Used to help control certai... +
Used to help control certain types of seizures caused by epilepsy. This medicine is an antiepileptic. More info »
Treats nerve and muscle pai... +
Treats nerve and muscle pain caused by diabetes, shingles, fibromyalgia, or a spinal cord injury. Also treats partial-onset seizures in adults. More info »
Treats dementia (memory los... +
Treats dementia (memory loss and mental changes) that is a sign of Alzheimer's disease. More info »
Helps control and prevent c... +
Helps control and prevent certain kinds of seizures. Also prevents migraine headaches in adults. More info »
Treats depression, anxiety,... +
Treats depression, anxiety, diabetic peripheral neuropathy (nerve pain caused by diabetes), fibromyalgia (muscle pain and stiffness), or chronic (long-lasting) pain related to muscles and bones. This medicine is a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI). More info »
Tizanidine is used to relie... +
Tizanidine is used to relieve the spasms and increased muscle tone caused by multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which the nerves do not function properly and patients may experience weakness, numbness, loss of muscle coordination and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control), stroke, or brain or spinal injury. Tizanidine is in a class of medications called skeletal muscle relaxants. It works by slowing action in the brain and nervous system to allow the muscles to relax. More info »
Ropinirole is used alone or... +
Ropinirole is used alone or with other medications to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD; a disorder of the nervous system that causes difficulties with movement, muscle control, and balance), including shaking of parts of the body, stiffness, slowed movements, and problems with balance. Ropinirole is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS or Ekbom syndrome; a condition that causes discomfort in the legs and a strong urge to move the legs, especially at night and when sitting or lying down). Ropinirole is in a class of medications called dopamine agonists. It works by acting in place of dopamine, a natural substance in the brain that is needed to control movement. More info »
Trazodone is used to treat ... +
Trazodone is used to treat depression. Trazodone is in a class of medications called serotonin modulators. It works by increasing the amount of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. More info »
Treats certain types of sei... +
Treats certain types of seizures and mood disorders. Often used along with other medicines. More info »
Treats muscle spasms caused... +
Treats muscle spasms caused by multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury or disease. This medicine is a muscle relaxer. More info »
The combination of levodopa... +
The combination of levodopa and carbidopa is used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and Parkinson's-like symptoms that may develop after encephalitis (swelling of the brain) or injury to the nervous system caused by carbon monoxide poisoning or manganese poisoning. Parkinson's symptoms, including tremors (shaking), stiffness, and slowness of movement, are caused by a lack of dopamine, a natural substance usually found in the brain. Levodopa is in a class of medications called central nervous system agents. It works by being converted to dopamine in the brain. Carbidopa is in a class of medications called decarboxylase inhibitors. It works by preventing levodopa from being broken down before it reaches the brain. This allows for a lower dose of levodopa, which causes less nausea and vomiting. More info »
Sertraline is used to treat... +
Sertraline is used to treat depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (bothersome thoughts that won't go away and the need to perform certain actions over and over), panic attacks (sudden, unexpected attacks of extreme fear and worry about these attacks), posttraumatic stress disorder (disturbing psychological symptoms that develop after a frightening experience), and social anxiety disorder (extreme fear of interacting with others or performing in front of others that interferes with normal life). It is also used to relieve the symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder, including mood swings, irritability, bloating, and breast tenderness. Sertraline is in a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It works by increasing the amounts of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. More info »
Treats partial seizures in ... +
Treats partial seizures in adults with epilepsy. May be used together with other anti-seizure medicines. Belongs to a class of drugs called sulfonamides (sulfa drugs). More info »
Treats severe, ongoing pain... +
Treats severe, ongoing pain (during and after surgery, cancer pain) that cannot be controlled with other medicines. This medicine is a narcotic pain reliever. More info »
Tramadol is used to relieve... +
Tramadol is used to relieve moderate to moderately severe pain. Tramadol extended-release tablets are only used by people who are expected to need medication to relieve pain around-the-clock for a long time. Tramadol is in a class of medications called opiate agonists. It works by changing the way the body senses pain. More info »
Lacosamide injection is use... +
Lacosamide injection is used in combination with other medications to control certain types of seizures in people who cannot take oral medications. Lacosamide injection is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in the brain. More info »
Used to relieve moderate to... +
Used to relieve moderate to severe pain. More info »
Amitriptyline is used to tr... +
Amitriptyline is used to treat symptoms of depression. Amitriptyline is in a class of medications called tricyclic antidepressants. It works by increasing the amounts of certain natural substances in the brain that are needed to maintain mental balance. More info »
Fluoxetine (Prozac) is used... +
Fluoxetine (Prozac) is used to treat depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (bothersome thoughts that won't go away and the need to perform certain actions over and over), some eating disorders, and panic attacks (sudden, unexpected attacks of extreme fear and worry about these attacks). Fluoxetine (Sarafem) is used to relieve the symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder, including mood swings, irritability, bloating, and breast tenderness. Fluoxetine is in a class of medications called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It works by increasing the amount of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. More info »
Methadone is used to reliev... +
Methadone is used to relieve moderate to severe pain that has not been relieved by non-narcotic pain relievers. It also is used to prevent withdrawal symptoms in patients who were addicted to opiate drugs and are enrolled in treatment programs in order to stop taking or continue not taking the drugs. Methadone is in a class of medications called opiate (narcotic) analgesics. Methadone works to treat pain by changing the way the brain and nervous system respond to pain. It also works as a substitute for opiate drugs of abuse by producing similar effects and preventing withdrawal symptoms in people who have stopped using these drugs. More info »
Zolpidem is used to treat i... +
Zolpidem is used to treat insomnia (difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep). Zolpidem belongs to a class of medications called sedative-hypnotics. It works by slowing activity in the brain to allow sleep. More info »
Sumatriptan is used to trea... +
Sumatriptan is used to treat the symptoms of migraine headaches (severe, throbbing headaches that sometimes is accompanied by nausea or sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan is in a class of medications called selective serotonin receptor agonists. It works by narrowing blood vessels in the head and stopping pain signals from being sent to the brain. Sumatriptan does not prevent migraine attacks. More info »
Rivastigmine is used to tre... +
Rivastigmine is used to treat mild to moderate dementia (memory loss) associated with Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease. More info »
MORPHINE SULFATE ER
Morphine is used to relieve... +
Morphine is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine extended-release tablets and capsules are only used to relieve severe (around-the-clock) pain that cannot be controlled by the use of other pain medications. Morphine extended-release tablets and capsules should not be used to treat pain that can be controlled by medication that is taken as needed. More info »
Cyclobenzaprine, a muscle r... +
Cyclobenzaprine, a muscle relaxant, is used with rest, physical therapy, and other measures to relax muscles and relieve pain and discomfort caused by strains, sprains, and other muscle injuries. More info »
Promethazine is used to rel... +
Promethazine is used to relieve the symptoms of allergic reactions such as allergic rhinitis (runny nose and watery eyes caused by allergy to pollen, mold or dust), allergic conjunctivitis (red, watery eyes caused by allergies), allergic skin reactions, and allergic reactions to blood or plasma products. Promethazine is used with other medications to treat anaphylaxis (sudden, severe allergic reactions) and the symptoms of the common cold such as sneezing, cough, and runny nose. Promethazine is also used to relax and sedate patients before and after surgery, during labor, and at other times. Promethazine is also used to prevent and control nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery, and with other medications to help relieve pain after surgery. Promethazine is also used to prevent and treat motion sickness. Promethazine helps control symptoms, but will not treat the cause of the symptoms or speed recovery. Promethazine is in a class of medications called phenothiazines. It works by blocking the action of a certain natural substance in the body. More info »
Treats seizure disorders. B... +
Treats seizure disorders. Belongs to a class of drugs called anticonvulsants. More info »
Citalopram is used to treat... +
Citalopram is used to treat depression. Citalopram is in a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It is thought to work by increasing the amount of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. More info »
About This Data
ProPublica obtained prescribing data from Medicare’s prescription drug benefit, known as Part D, under the Freedom of Information Act. The data for 2012 includes more than 1.2 billion prescriptions written by nearly 1.5 million doctors, nurses and other providers. This database lists about 382,000 of those providers who wrote 50 or more prescriptions for at least one drug that year. Almost three-fourths went to patients 65 and older; the rest were for disabled patients. Methodology »
If you are a provider and you believe your address is incorrect, check the listing you created on the National Provider Identifier registry. If you change your listing, send a note to email@example.com and we will update your information. If you have other questions about this data, send a note to firstname.lastname@example.org.
- No comparisons are shown if 10 or fewer prescribers in the state share this specialty.
- The list of top drugs includes only those for which this provider wrote 50 or more prescriptions, but all prescriptions are counted in the summary totals at the top.
- The calculation of “Risky Drugs to Seniors” does not include drugs for which a provider wrote 11 or fewer prescriptions because Medicare redacted the information to protect patient privacy.
- Comparisons do not take into account the medical conditions of patients. Medications for certain conditions do not have generic alternatives, so patients would receive more expensive brand name drugs.
- This provider's address and specialty information was last updated on June 30, 2011.
- Comparisons are based on each provider’s current address, not necessarily where he or she worked during the time period covered in this database.