ProPublica

Journalism in the Public Interest

Cancel

Prescriber Checkup

At A Glance: This Prescriber in 2012

Geriatric Medicine

Self-Reported Primary Specialty

See Other Prescribers With This Specialty in This State »

34,136Medicare Part D Prescriptions Filled, Including Refills

Rank: 3 out of 71

$1.99M Total Retail Price of All Prescriptions

Rank: 3 out of 71

574 Patients Receiving at Least One Drug in Part D
81%Patients 65 Years and Older
93% Subsidized Claims for Low-Income Patients

How Does This Prescriber Compare to Peers?

In the same specialty and state. Caveats »

Drugs That Present Special Risks
Costs of Prescribing
Higher avg 81928cdb0ebe162ff75cf405bfacadd396bf3ec84bc467b6f3e612dd63daa776 Average for
this specialty
in North Carolina
Lower avg 72b1978e1dcc0b845f89d17d692cfff7aeaf8d8bce70310d8bfc535db2daf62a

Schedule Two
Controlled Substances

25% of this provider’s 574 patients filled at least one prescription for a schedule two drug, compared to an average of 12%.

Schedule Three
Controlled Substances

28% of this provider’s 574 patients filled at least one prescription for a schedule three drug, compared to an average of 9%.

Risky Drugs to Seniors

1% of this provider’s 28,998 prescriptions for patients 65 and older were for "potentially dangerous" drugs, compared to an average of 1%.

Brand Name Drugs

23% of this provider’s prescriptions were for brand-name drugs, compared to an average of 25%.

Prescription Price

$58 was the average price of a prescription from this provider, compared to $58 among peers.

Prescriptions per Patient

59 is the average number of prescriptions (including refills) per patient, compared to an average of 30.


Another View

This chart shows a different comparison of all providers in this specialty based on their mix of drugs and volume. Providers are grouped by similarity; those least like their peers are farthest to the right. Hover over the bars to see names of other prescribers.

← Prescribers more like their peers Prescribers less like their peers →
KEY: How to read this
chart

Fewer Prescribers
More Prescribers

This Prescriber
Hover to see more prescribers

This Prescriber's Drugs

The table below list this provider’s drugs, the number of prescriptions and how many went to seniors. Drugs are ranked by volume and compared with the rank for all providers in the same specialty and state.

Click to Filter by Category

Clear Filter


S2

A schedule two drug. More » Schedule two drugs have a high potential for abuse and severe dependence, according to the Drug Enforcement Administration.

S3

A schedule three drug. More » Schedule three drugs have potential for abuse and dependence, according to the Drug Enforcement Administration.

A

An antipsychotic drug. More » Antipsychotics are frequently given to dementia patients, though it increases their risk of death.

R

A risky drug for seniors. More » The American Geriatrics Society has said this drug is "potentially dangerous" for seniors and might be inappropriate.

10

This provider is among the top 10 prescribers of
this drug in the country.

This provider’s prescriptions for this drug were for more days than those of peers. More » Because of this, his or her prescription count may be lower.

This provider’s prescriptions for this drug were for fewer days than those of peers. More » Because of this, his or her prescription count may be higher.

This Drug's Rank
Drug Name Total Prescriptions Filled
Including Refills
Prescriptions
to 65+
Category For this Prescriber For All Prescribers in
This Specialty in North Carolina
WARFARIN SODIUM

Warfarin is used to prevent... +

Warfarin is used to prevent blood clots from forming or growing larger in your blood and blood vessels. It is prescribed for people with certain types of irregular heartbeat, people with prosthetic (replacement or mechanical) heart valves, and people who have suffered a heart attack. Warfarin is also used to treat or prevent venous thrombosis (swelling and blood clot in a vein) and pulmonary embolism (a blood clot in the lung). Warfarin is in a class of medications called anticoagulants ('blood thinners'). It works by decreasing the clotting ability of the blood. More info »

1,692 1,528 1 7
FUROSEMIDE

Treats fluid retention (ede... +

Treats fluid retention (edema) and high blood pressure (hypertension). More info »

1,259 1,113 2 1
LEVOTHYROXINE SODIUM

Levothyroxine, a thyroid ho... +

Levothyroxine, a thyroid hormone, is used to treat hypothyroidism, a condition where the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. Without this hormone, the body cannot function properly, resulting in: poor growth; slow speech; lack of energy; weight gain; hair loss; dry, thick skin; and increased sensitivity to cold. When taken correctly, levothyroxine reverses these symptoms. Levothyroxine is also used to treat congenital hypothyroidism (cretinism) and goiter (enlarged thyroid gland). More info »

1,075 944 3 2
HYDROCODONE-ACETAMINOPHEN

Used to relieve moderate to... +

Used to relieve moderate to severe pain. More info »

917 748 S3 4 9
AMLODIPINE BESYLATE

Amlodipine is used alone or... +

Amlodipine is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure and chest pain (angina). Amlodipine is in a class of medications called calcium channel blockers. It lowers blood pressure by relaxing the blood vessels so the heart does not have to pump as hard. It controls chest pain by increasing the supply of blood to the heart. If taken regularly, amlodipine controls chest pain, but it does not stop chest pain once it starts. Your doctor may prescribe a different medication to take when you have chest pain. More info »

752 686 5 4
NAMENDA

Treats dementia (memory los... +

Treats dementia (memory loss and mental changes) that is a sign of Alzheimer's disease. More info »

731 715 6 14
CITALOPRAM HBR

Citalopram is used to treat... +

Citalopram is used to treat depression. Citalopram is in a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It is thought to work by increasing the amount of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. More info »

730 641 7 12
OMEPRAZOLE

Treats heartburn, stomach u... +

Treats heartburn, stomach ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and conditions that cause your stomach to make too much acid, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, endocrine tumors, and systemic mastocytosis. Also helps heal a damaged esophagus, and helps prevent stomach bleeding in patients who have a serious illness. This medicine may be used in combination with antibiotics to treat ulcers. This medicine is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). More info »

710 621 8 3
METOPROLOL TARTRATE

Metoprolol is used alone or... +

Metoprolol is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure. It also is used to prevent angina (chest pain) and to improve survival after a heart attack. Extended-release (long-acting) metoprolol also is used in combination with other medications to treat heart failure. Metoprolol is in a class of medications called beta blockers. It works by relaxing blood vessels and slowing heart rate to improve blood flow and decrease blood pressure More info »

706 613 9 8
LISINOPRIL

Treats high blood pressure ... +

Treats high blood pressure and heart failure. A lower blood pressure will reduce the risk of stroke and heart attack. Also used in the first few days after a heart attack to help reduce the risk of death. This medicine is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. More info »

675 568 10 6
TRAZODONE HCL

Trazodone is used to treat ... +

Trazodone is used to treat depression. Trazodone is in a class of medications called serotonin modulators. It works by increasing the amount of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. More info »

671 572 11 23
CYMBALTA

Treats depression, anxiety,... +

Treats depression, anxiety, diabetic peripheral neuropathy (nerve pain caused by diabetes), fibromyalgia (muscle pain and stiffness), or chronic (long-lasting) pain related to muscles and bones. This medicine is a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI). More info »

647 543 12 31
DONEPEZIL HCL

Donepezil is used to treat ... +

Donepezil is used to treat dementia (a brain disorder that affects the ability to remember, think clearly, communicate, and perform daily activities and may cause changes in mood and personality) associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD; a brain disease that slowly destroys the memory and the ability to think, learn, communicate and handle daily activities). Donepezil is in a class of medications called cholinesterase inhibitors. It improves mental function (such as memory, attention, social interaction, reasoning and language abilities, and ability to perform activities of daily living) by increasing the amount of a certain naturally occurring substance in the brain. Donepezil may improve the ability to think and remember or slow the loss of these abilities in people who have AD. However, donepezil will not cure AD or prevent the loss of mental abilities at some time in the future. More info »

631 596 13 10
SIMVASTATIN

Treats high cholesterol and... +

Treats high cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood. Lowers risk of heart attack, stroke, and certain blood vessel problems in people with certain risk factors. This medicine is an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, also called a statin. More info »

630 507 14 5
SERTRALINE HCL

Sertraline is used to treat... +

Sertraline is used to treat depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (bothersome thoughts that won't go away and the need to perform certain actions over and over), panic attacks (sudden, unexpected attacks of extreme fear and worry about these attacks), posttraumatic stress disorder (disturbing psychological symptoms that develop after a frightening experience), and social anxiety disorder (extreme fear of interacting with others or performing in front of others that interferes with normal life). It is also used to relieve the symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder, including mood swings, irritability, bloating, and breast tenderness. Sertraline is in a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It works by increasing the amounts of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. More info »

582 504 15 17
POTASSIUM CHLORIDE

Potassium is needed to main... +

Potassium is needed to maintain good health. More info »

483 440 16 11
POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 3350

Treats occasional constipat... +

Treats occasional constipation. More info »

473 390 17 27
GABAPENTIN

Treats certain types of sei... +

Treats certain types of seizures. Also treats Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) and pain caused by shingles (postherpetic neuralgia). More info »

443 381 18 13
MIRTAZAPINE

Treats depression. +

Treats depression. More info »

436 414 19 15
LANTUS

Treats diabetes mellitus. I... +

Treats diabetes mellitus. Insulin is a hormone that helps get sugar from the blood to the muscles, where it is used for energy. This type of insulin usually works longer than regular insulin. More info »

426 352 20 29
DIVALPROEX SODIUM

Treats seizures (epilepsy).... +

Treats seizures (epilepsy). Also used to treat the manic phase of bipolar disorder (manic-depressive illness) and to prevent migraine headaches. Belongs to a class of drugs called anticonvulsants. More info »

418 363 21 33
LEVOFLOXACIN

Levofloxacin is used to tre... +

Levofloxacin is used to treat certain infections such as pneumonia, chronic bronchitis and sinus, urinary tract, kidney, prostate (a male reproductive gland), and skin infections. Levofloxacin is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on purpose as part of a bioterror attack) in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. More info »

409 356 22 63
OXYCODONE HCL

Oxycodone is used to reliev... +

Oxycodone is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Oxycodone is in a class of medications called opiate (narcotic) analgesics. It works by changing the way the brain and nervous system respond to pain. More info »

396 311 S2 23 54
LAMOTRIGINE

Treats certain types of sei... +

Treats certain types of seizures and mood disorders. Often used along with other medicines. More info »

394 346 24 64
ZOLPIDEM TARTRATE

Zolpidem is used to treat i... +

Zolpidem is used to treat insomnia (difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep). Zolpidem belongs to a class of medications called sedative-hypnotics. It works by slowing activity in the brain to allow sleep. More info »

377 341 25 26
ISOSORBIDE MONONITRATE ER

Used to prevent or treat ch... +

Used to prevent or treat chest pain (angina). It works by relaxing the blood vessels to the heart, so the blood and oxygen supply to the heart is increased. More info »

321 287 26 44
TRAMADOL HCL

Tramadol is used to relieve... +

Tramadol is used to relieve moderate to moderately severe pain. Tramadol extended-release tablets are only used by people who are expected to need medication to relieve pain around-the-clock for a long time. Tramadol is in a class of medications called opiate agonists. It works by changing the way the body senses pain. More info »

315 299 27 22
SULFAMETHOXAZOLE-TRIMETHOPRIM

Treating infections caused ... +

Treating infections caused by certain bacteria. More info »

312 283 28 81
METFORMIN HCL

Metformin is used alone or ... +

Metformin is used alone or with other medications, including insulin, to treat type 2 diabetes (condition in which the body does not use insulin normally and, therefore, cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood). Metformin is in a class of drugs called biguanides. Metformin helps to control the amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood. It decreases the amount of glucose you absorb from your food and the amount of glucose made by your liver. Metformin also increases your body's response to insulin, a natural substance that controls the amount of glucose in the blood. Metformin is not used to treat type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not produce insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood). More info »

299 240 29 18
RANITIDINE HCL

Ranitidine is used to treat... +

Ranitidine is used to treat ulcers; gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a condition in which backward flow of acid from the stomach causes heartburn and injury of the food pipe (esophagus); and conditions where the stomach produces too much acid, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Over-the-counter ranitidine is used to prevent and treat symptoms of heartburn associated with acid indigestion and sour stomach. Ranitidine is in a class of medications called H2 blockers. It decreases the amount of acid made in the stomach. More info »

293 267 30 36
NOVOLOG

Treats diabetes mellitus. I... +

Treats diabetes mellitus. Insulin is a hormone that helps get sugar from the blood to the muscles, where it is used for energy. This type of insulin is similar to regular insulin, but acts in the body more quickly. More info »

287 251 31 45
PRAVASTATIN SODIUM

Pravastatin is used with di... +

Pravastatin is used with diet, weight-loss, and exercise to reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke and to decrease the chance that heart surgery will be needed in people who have heart disease or who are at risk of developing heart disease. Pravastatin is also used to reduce the amount of cholesterol (a fat-like substance) and other fatty substances in the blood. Pravastatin is in a class of medications called HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins). It works by slowing the production of cholesterol in the body to decrease the amount of cholesterol that may build up on the walls of the arteries and block blood flow to the heart, brain, and other parts of the body. More info »

287 260 31 28
KLOR-CON M10

Potassium is essential for ... +

Potassium is essential for the proper functioning of the heart, kidneys, muscles, nerves, and digestive system. Usually the food you eat supplies all of the potassium you need. However, certain diseases (e.g., kidney disease and gastrointestinal disease with vomiting and diarrhea) and drugs, especially diuretics ('water pills'), remove potassium from the body. Potassium supplements are taken to replace potassium losses and prevent potassium deficiency. More info »

284 249 33 88
QUETIAPINE FUMARATE

Quetiapine tablets and exte... +

Quetiapine tablets and extended-release (long-acting) tablets are used to treat the symptoms of schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Quetiapine tablets and extended-release tablets are also used alone or with other medications to treat episodes of mania (frenzied, abnormally excited or irritated mood) or depression in patients with bipolar disorder (manic depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). More info »

264 236 34 38
BACLOFEN

Treats muscle spasms caused... +

Treats muscle spasms caused by multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury or disease. This medicine is a muscle relaxer. More info »

258 146 35 67
PREDNISONE

Treats inflammation (swelli... +

Treats inflammation (swelling), severe allergies, complications of chronic illnesses, and other medical problems. Also used to decrease some symptoms of cancer. This medicine is a steroid. More info »

258 216 35 36
ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM

Used together with diet, we... +

Used together with diet, weight loss, and exercise to reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke and to decrease the chance that heart surgery will be needed in people who have heart disease or who are at risk of developing heart disease. Atorvastatin is also used to decrease the amount of fatty substances such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ('bad cholesterol') and triglycerides in the blood and to increase the amount of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ('good cholesterol') in the blood. More info »

257 243 37 20
FENTANYL

Treats severe, ongoing pain... +

Treats severe, ongoing pain (during and after surgery, cancer pain) that cannot be controlled with other medicines. This medicine is a narcotic pain reliever. More info »

250 237 S2 38 68
CLOPIDOGREL

Clopidogrel is used alone o... +

Clopidogrel is used alone or with aspirin to prevent serious or life-threatening problems with the heart and blood vessels in people who have had a stroke, heart attack, or severe chest pain. This includes people who have percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI; angioplasty; a type of heart surgery) that may involve inserting coronary stents (metal tubes surgically placed in clogged blood vessels to improve blood flow) or who have coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG; a type of heart surgery). More info »

249 211 39 32
RISPERIDONE

Treats schizophrenia and ce... +

Treats schizophrenia and certain problems caused by bipolar disorder. More info »

245 228 40 24
IPRATROPIUM-ALBUTEROL

The combination of albutero... +

The combination of albuterol and ipratropium is used to prevent wheezing, difficulty breathing, chest tightness, and coughing in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs and airways) such as chronic bronchitis (swelling of the air passages that lead to the lungs) and emphysema (damage to the air sacs in the lungs). Albuterol and ipratropium combination is used by people whose symptoms have not been controlled by a single inhaled medication. Albuterol and ipratropium are in a class of medications called bronchodilators. Albuterol and ipratropium combination works by relaxing and opening the air passages to the lungs to make breathing easier. More info »

245 227 40 60
METOPROLOL SUCCINATE

Metoprolol is used alone or... +

Metoprolol is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure. It also is used to prevent angina (chest pain) and to improve survival after a heart attack. Extended-release (long-acting) metoprolol also is used in combination with other medications to treat heart failure. Metoprolol is in a class of medications called beta blockers. It works by relaxing blood vessels and slowing heart rate to improve blood flow and decrease blood pressure More info »

238 232 42 16
LEVETIRACETAM

Used to help control certai... +

Used to help control certain types of seizures caused by epilepsy. This medicine is an antiepileptic. More info »

231 152 43 49
CEPHALEXIN

Treats bacterial infections... +

Treats bacterial infections. Belongs to a class of drugs called cephalosporin antibiotics. More info »

230 182 44 87
DIOVAN

Treats high blood pressure ... +

Treats high blood pressure and heart failure. A lower blood pressure can reduce the risk of stroke and heart attack. May also prolong life after a heart attack. This medicine is an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). More info »

228 197 45 61
TAMSULOSIN HCL

Tamsulosin is used in men t... +

Tamsulosin is used in men to treat the symptoms of an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH) which include difficulty urinating (hesitation, dribbling, weak stream, and incomplete bladder emptying), painful urination, and urinary frequency and urgency. Tamsulosin is in a class of medications called alpha blockers. It works by relaxing the muscles in the prostate and bladder so that urine can flow easily. More info »

225 212 46 34
ALLOPURINOL

Treats gout and some kinds ... +

Treats gout and some kinds of kidney stones. Lowers the amount of uric acid in blood. More info »

198 159 47 41
ADVAIR DISKUS

Prevents symptoms of asthma... +

Prevents symptoms of asthma or COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. This medicine is a combination of a steroid and a bronchodilator. More info »

183 152 48 47
AZITHROMYCIN

Treats infections caused by... +

Treats infections caused by certain bacteria. This medicine is a macrolide antibiotic. More info »

175 153 49 53
PLAVIX

Used alone or together with... +

Used alone or together with aspirin to help prevent stroke, heart attack, and other heart problems. This medicine is a blood thinner. More info »

159 134 50 57
NEXIUM

Treats heartburn, gastroeso... +

Treats heartburn, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and conditions that cause your stomach to make too much acid. Also helps heal a damaged esophagus. Prevents stomach ulcers and stomach irritation in patients who take pain or arthritis medicine or NSAID. This medicine may be used in combination with antibiotics to treat ulcers. This medicine is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). More info »

155 120 51 42
HUMALOG

Treats diabetes mellitus. I... +

Treats diabetes mellitus. Insulin is a hormone that helps get sugar from the blood to the muscles, where it is used for energy. This type of insulin starts working faster than regular insulin. More info »

155 128 51 116
CARVEDILOL

Treats high blood pressure ... +

Treats high blood pressure and congestive heart failure (CHF). Also reduces the risk of death from a heart attack. This medicine is a beta-blocker. More info »

151 132 53 25
PROMETHAZINE HCL

Promethazine is used to rel... +

Promethazine is used to relieve the symptoms of allergic reactions such as allergic rhinitis (runny nose and watery eyes caused by allergy to pollen, mold or dust), allergic conjunctivitis (red, watery eyes caused by allergies), allergic skin reactions, and allergic reactions to blood or plasma products. Promethazine is used with other medications to treat anaphylaxis (sudden, severe allergic reactions) and the symptoms of the common cold such as sneezing, cough, and runny nose. Promethazine is also used to relax and sedate patients before and after surgery, during labor, and at other times. Promethazine is also used to prevent and control nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery, and with other medications to help relieve pain after surgery. Promethazine is also used to prevent and treat motion sickness. Promethazine helps control symptoms, but will not treat the cause of the symptoms or speed recovery. Promethazine is in a class of medications called phenothiazines. It works by blocking the action of a certain natural substance in the body. More info »

150 131 R 54 85
LYRICA

Treats nerve and muscle pai... +

Treats nerve and muscle pain caused by diabetes, shingles, fibromyalgia, or a spinal cord injury. Also treats partial-onset seizures in adults. More info »

150 100 54 109
NYSTATIN

Treats fungus infections in... +

Treats fungus infections in the mouth, throat, and intestines. Belongs to a class of drugs called antifungals. More info »

147 116 56 97
TRAMADOL HCL-ACETAMINOPHEN

Treats short-term, medium t... +

Treats short-term, medium to medium-severe pain. More info »

147 146 56 165
GEMFIBROZIL

Lowers high triglyceride an... +

Lowers high triglyceride and cholesterol levels. More info »

145 121 58 150
BUMETANIDE

Treats fluid retention (ede... +

Treats fluid retention (edema) and high blood pressure. This medicine is a diuretic (water pill). More info »

145 112 58 146
CARBIDOPA-LEVODOPA

The combination of levodopa... +

The combination of levodopa and carbidopa is used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and Parkinson's-like symptoms that may develop after encephalitis (swelling of the brain) or injury to the nervous system caused by carbon monoxide poisoning or manganese poisoning. Parkinson's symptoms, including tremors (shaking), stiffness, and slowness of movement, are caused by a lack of dopamine, a natural substance usually found in the brain. Levodopa is in a class of medications called central nervous system agents. It works by being converted to dopamine in the brain. Carbidopa is in a class of medications called decarboxylase inhibitors. It works by preventing levodopa from being broken down before it reaches the brain. This allows for a lower dose of levodopa, which causes less nausea and vomiting. More info »

145 145 58 66
DIGOXIN

Treats certain heart rhythm... +

Treats certain heart rhythm problems (atrial fibrillation). Also used to treat heart failure, usually in combination with a diuretic (water pill) and an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. This medicine is also called digitalis. More info »

143 136 61 56
DILTIAZEM 24HR CD

Diltiazem is used to treat ... +

Diltiazem is used to treat high blood pressure and to control angina (chest pain). Diltiazem is in a class of medications called calcium-channel blockers. It works by relaxing the blood vessels so the heart does not have to pump as hard. It also increases the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. More info »

140 110 62 72
OXYCODONE-ACETAMINOPHEN

Used to relieve moderate to... +

Used to relieve moderate to severe pain. More info »

138 134 S2 63 51
ROPINIROLE HCL

Ropinirole is used alone or... +

Ropinirole is used alone or with other medications to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD; a disorder of the nervous system that causes difficulties with movement, muscle control, and balance), including shaking of parts of the body, stiffness, slowed movements, and problems with balance. Ropinirole is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS or Ekbom syndrome; a condition that causes discomfort in the legs and a strong urge to move the legs, especially at night and when sitting or lying down). Ropinirole is in a class of medications called dopamine agonists. It works by acting in place of dopamine, a natural substance in the brain that is needed to control movement. More info »

138 127 63 117
FLUTICASONE PROPIONATE

Treats stuffy nose caused b... +

Treats stuffy nose caused by hay fever and other allergies. This medicine is a corticosteroid. More info »

135 124 65 35
OLANZAPINE

Olanzapine is used to treat... +

Olanzapine is used to treat the symptoms of schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions) in adults and teenagers 13 years of age and older. It is also used to treat bipolar disorder (manic depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods) in adults and teenagers 13 years of age and older. More info »

134 126 66 65
ALBUTEROL SULFATE

Albuterol is used to preven... +

Albuterol is used to prevent and treat wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs and airways). Albuterol inhalation aerosol is also used to prevent breathing difficulties during exercise. Albuterol is in a class of medications called bronchodilators. It works by relaxing and opening air passages to the lungs to make breathing easier. More info »

131 129 67 106
TIZANIDINE HCL

Tizanidine is used to relie... +

Tizanidine is used to relieve the spasms and increased muscle tone caused by multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which the nerves do not function properly and patients may experience weakness, numbness, loss of muscle coordination and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control), stroke, or brain or spinal injury. Tizanidine is in a class of medications called skeletal muscle relaxants. It works by slowing action in the brain and nervous system to allow the muscles to relax. More info »

130 69 68 182
KLOR-CON M20

Potassium is essential for ... +

Potassium is essential for the proper functioning of the heart, kidneys, muscles, nerves, and digestive system. Usually the food you eat supplies all of the potassium you need. However, certain diseases (e.g., kidney disease and gastrointestinal disease with vomiting and diarrhea) and drugs, especially diuretics ('water pills'), remove potassium from the body. Potassium supplements are taken to replace potassium losses and prevent potassium deficiency. More info »

129 115 69 59
TRAVATAN Z

Reduces pressure inside the... +

Reduces pressure inside the eye that is caused by glaucoma or ocular hypertension (high blood pressure in the eye). More info »

122 98 70 115
ESCITALOPRAM OXALATE

Escitalopram is used to tre... +

Escitalopram is used to treat depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; excessive worry and tension that disrupts daily life and lasts for 6 months or longer). Escitalopram is in a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It works by increasing the amount of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. More info »

122 100 70 46
MORPHINE SULFATE ER

Morphine is used to relieve... +

Morphine is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine extended-release tablets and capsules are only used to relieve severe (around-the-clock) pain that cannot be controlled by the use of other pain medications. Morphine extended-release tablets and capsules should not be used to treat pain that can be controlled by medication that is taken as needed. More info »

119 76 S2 72 132
ZIPRASIDONE HCL

Ziprasidone is used to trea... +

Ziprasidone is used to treat the symptoms of schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). It is also used to treat episodes of mania (frenzied, abnormally excited or irritated mood) or mixed episodes (symptoms of mania and depression that happen together) in patients with bipolar disorder (manic depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). More info »

116 80 73 186
OXYBUTYNIN CHLORIDE ER

Oxybutynin is used to contr... +

Oxybutynin is used to control urgent, frequent, or uncontrolled urination in people who have overactive bladder (a condition in which the bladder muscles have uncontrollable spasms), spina bifida (a disability that occurs when the spinal cord does not close properly before birth), or other conditions that affect the bladder muscles. Oxybutynin is in a class of medications called anticholinergics. It works by relaxing the bladder muscles to prevent urgent, frequent, or uncontrolled urination. More info »

115 65 74 133
CIPROFLOXACIN HCL

Ciprofloxacin is used to tr... +

Ciprofloxacin is used to treat or prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Ciprofloxacin is also used to treat or prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on purpose as part of a bioterror attack) in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. Ciprofloxacin extended-release (long-acting) tablets are used only to treat certain types of urinary tract infections. Ciprofloxacin is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. More info »

115 95 74 52
SPIRIVA

Prevents the symptoms of br... +

Prevents the symptoms of bronchospasm caused by emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). This medicine is a bronchodilator. More info »

109 98 76 62
ENOXAPARIN SODIUM

Enoxaparin is used to preve... +

Enoxaparin is used to prevent blood clots in the leg in patients who are on bedrest or who are having hip replacement, knee replacement, or stomach surgery. It is used in combination with aspirin to prevent complications from angina (chest pain) and heart attacks. It is also used in combination with warfarin to treat blood clots in the leg. More info »

104 51 77 193
NITROFURANTOIN MONO-MACRO

Nitrofurantoinis used to tr... +

Nitrofurantoinis used to treat urinary tract infections. Nitrofurantoin is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. More info »

104 100 77 139
SEROQUEL

Treats schizophrenia and sy... +

Treats schizophrenia and symptoms of bipolar disorder (manic-depressive illness). Used together with other medicines to treat major depressive disorder (MDD). More info »

103 98 79 92
SPS 100 53 80 257
SPIRONOLACTONE

Treats fluid retention (ede... +

Treats fluid retention (edema) in patients with congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, or nephrotic syndrome. Also treats high blood pressure, heart failure, and low blood potassium (hypokalemia). This medicine is a diuretic (water pill). More info »

100 81 80 58
OXYCONTIN

Oxycodone is used to reliev... +

Oxycodone is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. More info »

99 74 S2 82 128
GLIPIZIDE

Used with diet and exercise... +

Used with diet and exercise to help control blood sugar in patients with type 2 diabetes. More info »

97 80 83 70
LACTULOSE

Treats constipation. Also t... +

Treats constipation. Also treats problems caused by liver disease. More info »

96 85 84 94
NOVOLIN R

Treats diabetes mellitus. +

Treats diabetes mellitus. More info »

95 75 85 75
CEFTRIAXONE

Treats infections caused by... +

Treats infections caused by certain types of bacteria. This medicine is a cephalosporin antibiotic. More info »

95 86 85 104
PANTOPRAZOLE SODIUM

Pantoprazole is used to tre... +

Pantoprazole is used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a condition in which backward flow of acid from the stomach causes heartburn and possible injury of the esophagus (the tube between the throat and stomach). Pantoprazole is used to treat the symptoms of GERD, allow the esophagus to heal, and prevent further damage to the esophagus. It is also used to treat conditions where the stomach produces too much acid, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Pantoprazole is in a class of medications called proton-pump inhibitors. It works by decreasing the amount of acid made in the stomach. More info »

94 64 87 40
METOCLOPRAMIDE HCL

Metoclopramide is used to r... +

Metoclopramide is used to relieve heartburn and speed the healing of ulcers and sores in the esophagus (tube that connects the mouth to the stomach) in people who have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD; condition in which backward flow of acid from the stomach causes heartburn and injury of the esophagus) that did not get better with other treatments. Metoclopramide is also used to relieve symptoms caused by slow stomach emptying in people who have diabetes. These symptoms include nausea, vomiting, heartburn, loss of appetite, and feeling of fullness that lasts long after meals. Metoclopramide is in a class of medications called prokinetic agents. It works by speeding the movement of food through the stomach and intestines. More info »

92 76 88 100
MORPHINE SULFATE

Morphine is used to relieve... +

Morphine is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine long-acting tablets and capsules are only used by patients who are expected to need medication to relieve moderate to severe pain around-the-clock for longer than a few days. Morphine is in a class of medications called opiate (narcotic) analgesics. It works by changing the way the body senses pain. More info »

90 66 S2 89 162
JANTOVEN

Helps to prevent new blood ... +

Helps to prevent new blood clots from forming, and helps to keep existing blood clots from getting worse. This medicine is a blood thinner (anticoagulant). More info »

90 50 89 43
ABILIFY

Treats schizophrenia, bipol... +

Treats schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. Also treats irritability associated with autism. More info »

89 71 91 102
LOSARTAN POTASSIUM

Losartan is used alone or i... +

Losartan is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure. Losartan is also used to decrease the risk of stroke in people who have high blood pressure and a heart condition called left ventricular hypertrophy (enlargement of the walls of the left side of the heart). Losartan may not decrease the risk of stroke in African Americans who have these conditions. This medication is also used to treat kidney disease in people who have type 2 diabetes (condition in which the body does not use insulin normally and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood) and high blood pressure. Losartan is in a class of medications called angiotensin II receptor antagonists. It works by blocking the action of certain natural substances that tighten the blood vessels, allowing the blood to flow more smoothly and the heart to pump more efficiently. More info »

87 84 92 21
CLONIDINE HCL

Clonidine is used alone or ... +

Clonidine is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure. Clonidine is in a class of medications called centrally acting alpha-agonist hypotensive agents. It works by decreasing your heart rate and relaxing the blood vessels so that blood can flow more easily through the body. More info »

85 60 93 48
HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE

Used alone or together with... +

Used alone or together with other medicines to treat high blood pressure and fluid retention (edema). This medicine is a diuretic (water pill). More info »

84 70 94 19
FLUCONAZOLE

Prevents and treats certain... +

Prevents and treats certain fungus infections. Belongs to a class of drugs called antifungals. More info »

82 67 95 201
LIDODERM

Treats nerve pain that is c... +

Treats nerve pain that is caused by herpes zoster, or "shingles." More info »

81 79 96 73
AMOX TR-POTASSIUM CLAVULANATE

The combination of amoxicil... +

The combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria, including infections of the ears, lungs, sinus, skin, and urinary tract. Amoxicillin is in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Clavulanic acid is in a class of medications called beta-lactamase inhibitors. It works by preventing bacteria from destroying amoxicillin. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. More info »

78 60 97 131
PHENYTOIN SODIUM EXTENDED

Phenytoin is used to contro... +

Phenytoin is used to control certain type of seizures, and to treat and prevent seizures that may begin during or after surgery to the brain or nervous system. Phenytoin is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in the brain. More info »

77 44 98 83
FINASTERIDE

Treats an enlarged prostate... +

Treats an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH) in men and causes hair growth in male pattern baldness. It may be used alone or in combination with other medicines such as an alpha-blocker (doxazosin, Carduraå¨) to treat BPH. This medicine is a 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor. More info »

74 73 99 77
PROCRIT 74 68 99 274
DILANTIN

Treats seizures. This medic... +

Treats seizures. This medicine is an anticonvulsant. More info »

74 27 99 172
DOXYCYCLINE HYCLATE

Doxycycline is used to trea... +

Doxycycline is used to treat bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections; Lyme disease; acne; infections of skin, genital, and urinary systems; and anthrax (after inhalational exposure). It is also used to prevent malaria. Doxycycline is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by preventing the growth and spread of bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. More info »

73 54 102 93
TOBRAMYCIN

Used to treat eye infection... +

Used to treat eye infections. Tobramycin is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. More info »

73 62 102 275
GLIMEPIRIDE

Treats type 2 diabetes. Use... +

Treats type 2 diabetes. Used together with a proper diet and exercise to help control high blood sugar. This medicine is a sulfonylurea. More info »

72 64 104 74
LIPITOR

Lowers high cholesterol and... +

Lowers high cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood. Lowers the risk of chest pain, stroke, heart attack, or certain heart and blood vessel problems in people who have certain risk factors. This medicine is an HMG-CoA inhibitor, also called a statin. More info »

71 45 105 111
FLUOXETINE HCL

Fluoxetine (Prozac) is used... +

Fluoxetine (Prozac) is used to treat depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (bothersome thoughts that won't go away and the need to perform certain actions over and over), some eating disorders, and panic attacks (sudden, unexpected attacks of extreme fear and worry about these attacks). Fluoxetine (Sarafem) is used to relieve the symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder, including mood swings, irritability, bloating, and breast tenderness. Fluoxetine is in a class of medications called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It works by increasing the amount of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. More info »

66 43 106 76
PAROXETINE HCL

Paroxetine tablets, suspens... +

Paroxetine tablets, suspension (liquid), and extended-release (long-acting) tablets are used to treat depression, panic disorder (sudden, unexpected attacks of extreme fear and worry about these attacks), and social anxiety disorder (extreme fear of interacting with others or performing in front of others that interferes with normal life). Paroxetine tablets and suspension are also used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (bothersome thoughts that won't go away and the need to perform certain actions over and over), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; excessive worrying that is difficult to control), and posttraumatic stress disorder (disturbing psychological symptoms that develop after a frightening experience). Paroxetine extended-release tablets are also used to treat premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD, physical and psychological symptoms that occur before the onset of the menstrual period each month). Paroxetine is in a class of medications called selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It works by increasing the amount of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. More info »

65 61 107 84
GENTAMICIN SULFATE

Ophthalmic gentamicin is us... +

Ophthalmic gentamicin is used to treat certain eye infections. Gentamicin is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infection. More info »

59 47 108 167
CYCLOBENZAPRINE HCL

Cyclobenzaprine, a muscle r... +

Cyclobenzaprine, a muscle relaxant, is used with rest, physical therapy, and other measures to relax muscles and relieve pain and discomfort caused by strains, sprains, and other muscle injuries. More info »

59 34 R 108 99
METHOTREXATE

Treats several kinds of can... +

Treats several kinds of cancer, including cancer of the blood, bone, lung, breast, head, or neck. Also treats rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis (a skin disease). More info »

59 57 108 252
BUSPIRONE HCL

Buspirone is used to treat ... +

Buspirone is used to treat anxiety disorders or in the short-term treatment of symptoms of anxiety. More info »

58 22 111 129
LATANOPROST

Latanoprost ophthalmic is u... +

Latanoprost ophthalmic is used to treat glaucoma (a condition in which increased pressure in the eye can lead to gradual loss of vision) and ocular hypertension (a condition which causes increased pressure in the eye). Latanoprost is in a class of medications called prostaglandin analogs. It lowers pressure in the eye by increasing the flow of natural eye fluids out of the eye. More info »

58 52 111 114
ATENOLOL

Treats high blood pressure ... +

Treats high blood pressure and angina (chest pain). May also lower the risk of repeated heart attacks. More info »

57 57 113 30
HYDROXYZINE HCL

Hydroxyzine is used to reli... +

Hydroxyzine is used to relieve the itching caused by allergies and to control the nausea and vomiting caused by various conditions, including motion sickness. It is also used for anxiety and to treat the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. More info »

57 48 R 113 143
ESTRADIOL

Replaces estrogen that decr... +

Replaces estrogen that decreases with menopause or removal of the ovaries. Also prevents osteoporosis and treats advanced prostate or advanced breast cancer in certain men and women. This medicine is an estrogen, which is a female hormone. More info »

56 42 R 115 302
VENLAFAXINE HCL ER

Venlafaxine is used to trea... +

Venlafaxine is used to treat depression. Venlafaxine extended-release (long-acting) capsules are also used to treat generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; excessive worrying that is difficult to control), social anxiety disorder (extreme fear of interacting with others or performing in front of others that interferes with normal life), and panic disorder (sudden, unexpected attacks of extreme fear and worry about these attacks). Venlafaxine is in a class of medications called selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). It works by increasing the amounts of serotonin and norepinephrine, natural substances in the brain that help maintain mental balance. More info »

54 52 116 82
BENZTROPINE MESYLATE

Treats symptoms of Parkinso... +

Treats symptoms of Parkinson's disease or side effects of other drugs. More info »

54 32 R 116 80
LITHIUM CARBONATE

Lithium is used to treat an... +

Lithium is used to treat and prevent episodes of mania (frenzied, abnormally excited mood) in people with bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). Lithium is in a class of medications called antimanic agents. It works by decreasing abnormal activity in the brain. More info »

53 35 118 175
EXELON

Rivastigmine is used to tre... +

Rivastigmine is used to treat mild to moderate dementia (memory loss) associated with Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease. More info »

53 45 118 91
COMBIVENT

Treats chronic obstructive ... +

Treats chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). More info »

52 34 120 159
AGGRENOX

Used to prevent strokes in ... +

Used to prevent strokes in patients with blood flow disorders or a history of blood clots. More info »

51 40 121 135
PHENYTOIN 51 34 121 310
LEVEMIR

Helps control blood sugar l... +

Helps control blood sugar levels. This medicine is a long-acting insulin. More info »

50 50 123 136
ALENDRONATE SODIUM

Alendronate is used to trea... +

Alendronate is used to treat and prevent osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break easily) in women who have undergone menopause (''change of life,'' end of menstrual periods) and to treat osteoporosis in men. Alendronate is also used to treat osteoporosis in men and women who are taking corticosteroids (a type of medication that may cause osteoporosis in some patients). Alendronate is also used to treat Paget's disease of bone (a condition in which the bones are soft and weak and may be deformed, painful, or easily broken). Alendronate is in a class of medications called bisphosphonates. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing bone density (thickness). More info »

50 46 123 39
About This Data

ProPublica obtained prescribing data from Medicare’s prescription drug benefit, known as Part D, under the Freedom of Information Act. The data for 2012 includes more than 1.2 billion prescriptions written by nearly 1.5 million doctors, nurses and other providers. This database lists about 382,000 of those providers who wrote 50 or more prescriptions for at least one drug that year. Almost three-fourths went to patients 65 and older; the rest were for disabled patients. Methodology »

Incorrect Info?

If you are a provider and you believe your address is incorrect, check the listing you created on the National Provider Identifier registry. If you change your listing, send a note to drugs@propublica.org and we will update your information. If you have other questions about this data, send a note to drugs@propublica.org.

Caveats
  • No comparisons are shown if 10 or fewer prescribers in the state share this specialty.
  • The list of top drugs includes only those for which this provider wrote 50 or more prescriptions, but all prescriptions are counted in the summary totals at the top.
  • The calculation of “Risky Drugs to Seniors” does not include drugs for which a provider wrote 11 or fewer prescriptions because Medicare redacted the information to protect patient privacy.
  • Comparisons do not take into account the medical conditions of patients. Medications for certain conditions do not have generic alternatives, so patients would receive more expensive brand name drugs.
  • This provider's address and specialty information was last updated on Nov. 4, 2009.
  • Comparisons are based on each provider’s current address, not necessarily where he or she worked during the time period covered in this database.